World History

WorldHistory

InstitutionAffiliation

Thefirst industrial revolution resulted in a rapid movement of people tourban areas (More, 2000). Changes in farming and high demand forworkers in urban areas prompted individuals living in the countrysideto move to towns. Consequently, small towns surrounding coal and ironmines mushroomed into cities overnight. New social classes alsoemerged: the middle and working class. The middle class took overoperations in factories, railroads, and mines their lifestyle wasmuch more comfortable when compared with that of the working class(More, 2000).

Variousfactors, during the industrial revolution, came together to bring tobear the rise of capitalism (Moore, 2016). One of these factors wasmechanical inventions such as the steam engine, which proliferatedthe scale and rate of manufacturing. Also, the workings of theBritish economy, which for an extended period was characterized byspecialization and trade, contributed to capitalism. Different areasin Britain concentrated on producing different kinds of goods for theinternational market. Thus, efficient producers could always find amarket for their cheaper commodities. Entrepreneurs who came up withnew inventions, similarly, amassed vast fortunes.

Theindustrial revolution resulted in permanent changes in the Britishsociety (Modern , 2016). Workers, owners (capitalists),and the government reacted variously to the ills of the revolution.Initially, government and owners assumed that market forces wouldcorrect these ills without intervention, but this happened on rareoccasions. When the government reacted, it did so with a bias to theowners. For example, the government rejected the proposal by workersto implement a minimum wage bill. Consequently, communism gainedpopularity among the uneducated and the have-nots. Workers andgovernment critics reacted creatively, for instance, by organizingsociety and work differently or by rebelling. However, the Britishgovernment and the capitalists responded swiftly and implementedpolicies that favored workers.

Thepremise behind capitalism is the desire to make a profit (Jahan &ampMahmud, 2015). Capitalists focus on maximizing their interestswithout considering those of the receiving party. Communism,conversely, focuses on the benefit of the whole community, as opposedto personal interests (Holmes, 2009). Also, capitalism encouragespeople to own tangible assets such as houses and land, in addition tointangible assets like stocks and bonds (Jahan &amp Mahmud, 2015).Communism requires the masses to share the wealth of the nationcommunally (Holmes, 2009).

References

Holmes,L. (2009). Communism. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Jahan,S. &amp Mahmud, A. (2015). What Is Capitalism?. Retrieved fromhttps://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2015/06/pdf/basics.pdf

Modern. (2016). Untitled Document. Webs.bcp.org. Retrieved 28June 2016, fromhttp://webs.bcp.org/sites/vcleary/ModernWorldHistoryTextbook/IndustrialRevolution/responsestoIR.html

Moore,R. (2016). CyberJournal. Fantasticforum.com. Retrieved 28 June 2016,fromhttp://www.fantasticforum.com/cyberjournal/rkm_globalization2.html

More,C. (2000). Understanding the industrial revolution. London:Routledge.

WorldHistory

InstitutionAffiliation

Socialmovements that sustain momentum have been proven to gathersignificant social change (Roberts and Greene, 2002, p. 891). NelsonMandela, for an extended period, fought to bring an end to theinjustices that the black South Africans faced before he wasimprisoned. After his release, Mandela`s ascension to office, asSouth Africa`s president, was inspired by the outcomes of socialmovements and a long struggle to bring an end to the apartheidsystem. Also, black South Africans wanted to establish their socialand civil rights. Eventually, the ideas that Nelson Mandela wasadvocating for came to be viewed as new, legitimate social andpolitical norms. These social movements enthused other countries inAfrica, Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe to pursue their socialand civil rights.

EleanorRoosevelt is famous for pioneering some of the most significantsocial reform initiatives. She was a diplomat who balanced her publicrole and personal interests fairly well (Black &amp Blinker, 2010,p. 5). Some individuals criticized her for highlighting some issuesand ignoring others. Nevertheless, Eleanor believed in affordingpeople the tools they needed to better their lives. To begin with,Eleanor chaired the drafting of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights. The document underlined the suffering that people had beensubjected to due to the ills of World War II. Eleanor sought tocreate a shared vision and secure international support for thedocument that she and other dedicated men and women, representingeighteen countries, had drafted. Her actions were inspired by herdetermination to prevent World War III. Also, the document, insubsequent years, became the centerpiece of human rights movements.

References

Black,A. &amp Blinker, M. (2010). FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS: Eleanor Rooseveltand the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (p. 5). Brookline, MA:Facing History and Ourselves.

Roberts,A. &amp Greene, G. (2002). Social workers` desk reference (p. 891).Oxford: Oxford University Press.

WorldHistory

InstitutionAffiliation

Civilizationin Mesopotamia can be attributed to a period of drought after 4000B.C (Kidner, Bucur, Mathisen, McKee, &amp Weeks, 2014, p. 8).Massive land reclamation initiatives were implemented after thisperiod to cultivate the fertile Delta soils of Tigris and EuphratesRivers. The land became so productive that the harvests (crops) fedmore people, resulting in a massive population explosion. Villagesdeveloped into cities that harbored tens of thousands of people.

TheEgyptian religion can be said to have contributed significantly tothe process of diffusion between the early Egyptian sailors andmerchants and the Romans. The worship of Osiris and Isis gainedmassive following throughout the Roman Empire (Erman, 1907, p. 239).The Egyptian merchants and sailors who settled in the ports andextravagant towns of the Mediterranean spread knowledge of Egyptiangods: Isis and Osiris. The sailors and merchants formed Egyptiancommunities in their areas of settlement. During their mysteriousfestivals, the Egyptians attracted attention from the indigenes.However, it was the educated classes in the Mediterranean region whoprecipitated the broad reach of the Egyptian religion. The primaryfactor that precipitated the fast growth of the Egyptian religionamong the Romans was decay in Religion itself thus, anything thatwould gratify their thirst for the supernatural was welcome.

Theavailability of cotton and water in the United States can be advancedas environmental factors that contributed significantly to theexpansion of the United States. The end of the eighteenth century wasa landmark in United States` Industrial Revolution (LIBRARY OFCONGRESS, n.d., p. 1). During this period, Samuel Slater moved toAmerica with new manufacturing technologies from Britain. He foundedthe first U.S. cotton mill in Beverly, Massachusetts. Like many millsthat came afterward, Slater`s mill was powered by water, confiningdevelopment to the Northeast in earlier years. This concentration ofindustries in Northeast resulted in the development of canals andrailroads, which opened up other regions in America to commerce andtrade in subsequent years.

References

Erman,A. (1907). A handbook of Egyptian religion (p. 239). London:Constable.

Kidner,F., Bucur, M., Mathisen, R., McKee, S., &amp Weeks, T. (2014).Making Europe (p. 8). Independence, KY: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

LIBRARYOF CONGRESS. The Industrial Revolution in the United States, 1.Retrieved fromhttp://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/primarysourcesets/industrial-revolution/pdf/teacher_guide.pdf