Week5 Assignment 1

Week5 Assignment 1

Theresearch question in this assignment is: “Does the tutoring methodaffect the learning scores of students in Grade 2”. This researchentails a process through which grade 2 students will be subjected tofour different types of tutoring methods. The scores of the studentsusing each method will be recorded at the end of two months. Thecomparison is then done to find out the difference in average scoresbetween the four different kinds of tutoring methods. In thisresearch, the statistical test that will apply to the researchquestion is one-way ANOVA. This test will apply because the studyseeks to compare the mean scores of the grade 2 students among thefour tutoring styles.

Inthis study, the null hypothesis (Ho) is: there is no difference inthe learning scores between the four different types of tutoringmethods. On the other hand, for the alternative hypothesis (H1),there is a difference in the learning scores between the fourdifferent types of tutoring methods. While carrying out this study,two types of errors are expected. These errors are type 1 error andtype 2 error. If the study reaches a conclusion that there is thedifference in learning scores between the different types of tutoringmethods. Even though the evidence that is available points that therethe study should indicate that there is no significant difference inthe learning scores between the four different categories, then type1 error occurs (Weiss & Weiss, 2012). On the other hand, type 2error occurs when the study concludes that there is no significantdifference in the learning scores of between the four differentcategories of learning. The evidence in existence points that thereshould have been a conclusion that there is a difference in theaverage scores between the four categories of learning (Weiss &Weiss, 2012).

Methods

Inthis study, for every tutoring method, there will be 15 participants.This will result in 60 participants in the study. The participantstaking part in the study are gender balanced with the participantsbeing 30 males and 30 females. Given that the participants are of thesame age set with different ages, the study will give a goodconclusion. The learners taking part in the study will be selectedthrough simple random sampling among the grade 2 students. Whiledoing the sampling, the confidence interval, the significance levelas well as the probability of being included in the sample andprobability of not being included in the sample will be taken intoaccount. This will help in coming up with the sample size. During thestudy, the 60 participants were recruited and then divided into thecategories of 15 individuals each. Every category of learners wasassigned to a given tutoring method.

Procedures

Thevariables in this study include the learner’s scores and thetutoring method. The learner’s score variable is continuous,quantitative with an interval scale of measurement. The learner’sscore is the dependent variable in this study. The category oftutoring method is discrete, categorical with a nominal scale ofmeasurement. The variable has four categories, and they includeMethod 1, Method 2, Method 3, and Method 4. The tutoring method isthe independent variable in the study. The score of the learnerdepicts the outcome of the various learning methods that are applied.In this study, the learner’s score is measured by subtracting thelast mark at the beginning of the two months from the mark at the endof the of two months period. The type of tutoring method applied isthose that are applied with an intention of having positive resultson their scores.

Results

Inthis study, a statistical test carried out is the one-way ANOVA. Thetest is applicable in this research given that the different averagesof more than two groups are being compared (Tabachnick, Fidell &Osterlind, 2001). The comparison is done in regards to a variablethat is continuous, dependent and quantitative in nature. In thisresearch, the continuous dependent variable that is being used is thelearner’s score and the categorical dependent variable on the otherhand are the tutoring methods that has four categories. Upondetermining that there is a significant difference between thetutoring methods and learners’ results the study then progresses todo a post hoc analysis. Through the post hoc analysis, the study isin a position to identify the different combinations of the tutoringmethods that can result in the significant difference in thelearners’ results between the different categories of tutoringmethods. Given that the study operates on the assumption that thereis equal variance then it proceeds to apply the Tukey post hoc test.

Inthe ANOVA table, the p-value is extracted from which a conclusion isdrawn. The conclusion is such that if the p-value is greater than thelevel of significance, then the study fails to reject the nullhypothesis. On the other hand, if the p-value is less than the levelof significance then the study proceeds to reject the null hypothesis(Hochberg & Benjamini, 1990). In the instance of post hoc, thestudy examines the p-value of every category with the other and forthe combinations where the p-value is less than the level ofsignificance (0.05), the study concludes that there is a statisticalsignificance.

Discussion

Inthis study, the assumptions that are taken into consideration is thatthe samples used have the same degree of variance thus the means arehomogenous in nature. The scores of the learners are assumed to havea normal distribution. Additionally, there can be bias doing datacollection or when choosing participants. From this study, it isconcluded that the method of tutoring affects the learner’s scores.Nonetheless, it is not appropriate to conclude that it is only thetutoring method, which leads to the difference in the scores of thelearners. The results obtained are significant and can be used torecommend the best tutoring method for the learners in grade 2.

References

Hochberg,Y., & Benjamini, Y. (1990). More powerful procedures for multiplesignificance testing. *Statisticsin medicine*, *9*(7),811-818.

Tabachnick,B. G., Fidell, L. S., & Osterlind, S. J. (2001). Usingmultivariate statistics.

Weiss,N. A., & Weiss, C. A. (2012). *Introductorystatistics*.London: Pearson Education.