Classificationof Print Advertising

Creative withoutstrategy is called ‘art’. Creative with strategy is called‘advertising’.

-Jef I. Richards- Professor, Advertising and Public Relations atMichigan State University.

Advertising is a major aspect of communication that seeks to conveycertain messages with predetermined and expected outcomes from theaudiences. There are different mediums of advertising such as radio,online, cable, and print. As one of the major mediums, printadvertising is largely popular due to its relative ease ofproduction, accessibility, and effectiveness. The print medium hasdifferent classifications based on content, print material and otheraspects. The three major classifications of print adverts based onthe format and medium used are outdoor, brochures/pamphlets, andnewspaper/magazine ads, whose characteristics vary widely and aredesigned to meet unique objectives as expounded by this essay.

The first classification of print ads, which is one of the mostfavored by advertisers, comprises of newspapers and magazines. Thereare some core differences between newspapers and magazines such asfrequency of publication and target market. In most cases, magazinesare printed on superior quality glossy paper meaning that they aremore suitable for ads that seek to capitalize on image clarity (SmallBusiness Chron). Common magazines include Motor Trend targetingautomobile enthusiasts, and Times that specialize in world news andpolitics. On the other hand, newspapers target larger masses atdifferent levels such as regional, local, and national. Mostnewspapers such as the New York Times are printed daily while othersare printed several times a day. Both newspapers and magazines canhandle different types of print adverts such as printed text, imagesor a combination of both. The size of the adverts may vary with mostof them ranging from full page adverts to classifieds. In some cases,advertisers may also purchase several pages of space to feature adetailed story and series of messages. Some newspapers and magazinesare free of charge while the majority is sold at a given price. Ineither case, the cost of advertising can be very high depending onthe circulation numbers and the space or words used. Advertisers alsohave a choice between colored prints and black and white prints (Dyer21). However, with growing popularity of digital technology,magazines and newspapers are slowly losing their print circulationnumbers in favor of digital copies (Kelley and Jugenheimer 36).Nonetheless, advertisers still rely on them to market their goods.

The second classification is made up of pamphlets. Pamphlets, alsoknown as flyers, are made up of unbounded booklets or single leafletscontaining printed information and images addressing a given topic.Pamphlets are distributed to the targeted masses for free. This formof print advertising is most suited to organizations that seek todistribute information about their programs, services, and productsto the public (O’Connor, Marsh and Tshivashe 18). They are commonamong higher education institutions such as Yale University andCambridge on various courses offered, political parties, and evenbanks. For instance, the 2016 Democratic Party presidentialcandidate, Hillary Clinton, has been using pamphlets and flierswidely to sell her manifesto during campaign rallies (Getty Images).The manner of distribution varies widely with some advertisersbundling them with magazines and newspapers. The main advantage ofusing pamphlets over other mediums is that space is better utilizedand they be used to target unique market segments. For instance,Citibank offers pamphlets to clients at its banking halls. Thuspamphlets serve a unique purpose different from newspapers andmagazines.

Outdoor adverts that comprise billboards, posters, and banners makeup the third classification of print adverts. Billboards are usuallylarge printed mediums displayed along highways and motorwaystargeting road users and other areas where there is large humantraffic. Posters are relatively smaller than billboards and areusually printed on paper and plastered on different surfaces (SmallBusiness Chron). Banners, though the term has come to be associatedwith online advertising, comprises of conventionally printed ads onpaper, cloth, and other polyethylene-based materials. Banners arecommon in university’s student leadership campaigns or protests.Stand banners and retractable banners are widely used in trade fairsand conferences as they are more professional and presentable(Staples). The main advantages outdoor print ads are their largesize, they can be made from different materials and they can beeasily made at home. For instance, individuals use posters toadvertise lost pets in neighborhoods by simply sticking them on treesand signage posts. To make billboards more interesting, advertisersuse bright colors and large fonts (Blythe 35). Fast food retailoutlet, McDonalds has perfected the use of billboards globally byusing bright colors and images (McDonalds). In line with that,Pichler (5) indicates that modern outdoor print advertising isincreasingly using more images than text. Images are more attractiveto the eye and depict emotion more easily and reach a greateraudience at any given time.

Given the various classes of print adverts, it is clear that eachtype is suited for different adverts and type of message. Again, costis a sensitive issue for advertisers, especially those with smalladvertising budgets. Nonetheless, it is also very important that thetype of message, content, audience targeted, and medium used all workin tandem to convey the intended message and elicit the intendedresponse from the audience (Dyer 9). This marks the ultimate successfor advertisers. For this reason, newspaper/magazine ads, pamphlets,and outdoor prints may be suited to different advertisers dependingon the industry, product, cost, message and personal preferences.Therefore, it is important that advertisers learn about the differenttypes of print adverts so that they choose one that best fits theirneeds and be creative enough to make it interesting to the audiences.


Blythe, Jim.Principles and Practice of Marketing. New York: SAGE. 2013.Print.

Dyer, Gillian.Advertising as Communication. New York: Routledge. 2008.Print.

Getty Images.Volunteer-Sorts-Election-Pamphlets for Hillary Clinton News Photo.Web. 2016.

20th May2016.


Kelley, Larry andDonald Jugenheimer. Advertising Media: Workbook and Sourcebook.New

York: M.E. Sharpe.2008. Print

McDonalds, 2016.Web. 30th June 2016

&lthttps://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/12074756964.&gt

New York Times.2016. Web. 30th June 2016. &lthttp://www.nytimes.com/&gt

O’Connor, M.,Marsh, R. and Tshivashe, T. Advertising and Promotions. NewYork: Pearson.

2007. Print.

Pichler, Wilfried.The Language of Pictures in Print Media Advertising. London:Diplom. 2002.


Small BusinessChron. What Is Print Media Advertising? 2016. Web. 29thJune 2016.


Staples. Bannerstands. 2016. Web. 30th June 2016.


Time Magazine. 2016.Web. 30th June 2016. &lthttp://time.com/&gt

EthicalCode for Economists

Thereare numerous ethical requirements for professional economicdevelopers. The three main ones touch on preserving theconfidentiality of clients, applying economic knowledge to thebenefit of the larger community and sharing information withprofessional body as per protocol as espoused in this essay.

First,professional economic developers should be representatives of thelocal community and should spearhead community interests. They needto understand the role of economic knowledge in the development ofcommunities in which they live and work in economically, socially andin other ways. Professional economic developers have a moralobligation to ensure that economic knowledge, models and conceptssuch as economies of scale are applied and taught to members of thecommunity in order to make sure that the given community benefit as awhole from the knowledge that the professionals possess. At the sametime, professional economic developers should not be selfish so as toapply economic knowledge for their own selfish gains to thedisadvantage of the community (Searing and Searing 220). They shouldput the benefit of the community first at all times.

Secondly,professional economic developers shall at all times handle alltransactions with their clients in confidence. This translates tomean that they should always respect the privacy of individualclients and not expose such people to situations where their privacymaybe infringed or where proprietary information may be accessed byunauthorized persons. Therefore, they should employ appropriate meanto safeguard private information of their clients. Failure to do sois not only unethical but also exposes professional to legal suits.

Thirdly,professional economic developers are bound by the professionalethical code for economists and the law of the land to act inaccordance with the law and statutes that apply to them. Therefore,professional economic developers are not expected to aid anyactivities involving their clients that might be in contravention tothe law of the land or individually engage in breaking the law. Forinstance, professional economic developers should not be party tohelping their clients engage in tax evasion while at they areexpected to advise their clients on the best way forward (Searing andSearing 224). Where clients fail to follow such advice, professionaleconomic developers are required by law to report such activities andact as whistleblowers in line with the disclosure requirements.

Thethree ethical issues are integral in making competent professionaleconomic developers and economists in general. By observing suchrequirements, they meet their professional ethical obligations.


Searing,Elizabeth and Donald Searing. PracticingProfessional Ethics in Economics and

PublicPolicy.New York: Springer. 2015. Print.


Scholarly and fictional writing are two forms of writing intended fortwo different audiences for difference purposes. This short essayuses one example of a fictional article and another of a scholarlyarticle to highlight the differences.

“Jack and the beanstalk” is an epic fictional story from Britainthat has developed into an English cultural icon. The story tells theexperiences of a young poor boy named Jack who used to live with hismother and their only cow that sustained them. The story is writtenin a relaxed manner using simple language and simple words. Simplesentences are used alongside with dialogue to show the exact wordsuttered by the characters in the story. This approach in writing isvery different to the writing style of a scholarly article byZilberman and colleagues (2013) published in a scholarly journal. The scholarly article uses a formal approach and provides criticalknowledge and evidence of wide research through references to othersources.

At the same time, there are some similarities in the writing styles. Key among them is the fact that the sentences in both writings areconstructed in a grammatically correct manner. There is properpunctuation such as the use of commas and full stops in both pieces.Furthermore, both articles are written in third person, which is mostcommon in scholarly writing.

The ‘Jack and the beanstalk’ story is clearly intended forchildren based on the content. The story’s main event revolvesaround some magical beans that make it easy to sell to children whomay still believe in magic. On the other hand, the scholarly articleis clearly intended for a scholarly audience specifically interestedin the economic relationship between climate change initiatives andfood markets. The language used in the scholarly article is morecomplex with more complex sentence structures that would appeal andbe understandable to a more educated audience is used. Technicalterms such as price elasticity and demand are used. By using suchadvanced terms, it is clear that the authors address an educatedaudience.

Furthermore, “Jack and the beanstalk” basically seeks toentertain and offer some moral lessons to young readers. Clearly, thestory has no academic relevance as it does not address anytheoretical or academic concepts or even show proof of research. Itpurely seeks to share the experiences of a young boy and his familyand his encounter with magical beans. Thus, the story seeks toentertain and offer English lessons in constructing simple sentences.The fictional story also offers moral lessons to readers by teachingthem about the need to take advantages of opportunities that comealong in life. This is evident in what happens to jack. He takes therisk of exchanging the cow for magical beans instead of money.Luckily, it is these magical beans that bring to an end his family’spoverty and makes him a village hero.

The article byZilberman and colleagues in its scholarly nature has scholarly goals.The authors sought to make a link between the increased use ofbiofueld as a climate change control strategy on food markets andprices. The authors recognize that production of biofuel using cropssuch as corn and palm oil directly competes with food crops in termsof farmland and investments. This may imply that many farmers may beencouraged to abandon food crop farming and instead go for farmingoriented towards biofuel production and in the result create ashortage in food crops and lead to increases in prices of foodsglobally.

From the comparison of the two pieces of writing, it is clear thatfictional and scholarly pieces have different objectives of writingand utilize different styles of writing suitable for the intendedaudience.


Jack and thebeanstalk

Zilberman, David,Gal Hochman, Deepak Rajagopal, Steve Sexton and Govinda Timilsina,The

Impact of Biofuels on Commodity Food Prices: Assessment of Findings.Am. J. Agr. Econ. 95 (2): 275-281. 2013. Web.