Tonya Moore

Tonya Moore 3

TonyaMoore

Alzheimer’sDisease: Annotated Bibliography

Alzheimer’s,Association. &quot2015 Alzheimer`s disease facts and figures.&quotAlzheimer`s&amp dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer`s Association11.3 (2015): 332.

TheAlzheimer’s Association sought to understand the public healthcosts of the disease across the globe. Their inquiry encompassed itsincidence, prevalence, mortality rates, health cost and its effect onthe caregivers. The body also examined the challenges faced byhealthcare providers in the event of disclosing the condition totheir patients and their relatives. The inquiry found out that morethan 5.3 Americans aged 65 years and over live with Alzheimer.Nonetheless, about 200,000 of them are below 65 years.

Thereport found out that the rate of Alzheimer’s disease is increasingtremendously. By 2050, it is estimated that more than 10 millionAmericans will be on medication for the condition. The rationale forthe swelling number of patients is the aging baby boom generation.The current pattern as outlined by the World Health Organizationconfirms the projection. WHO provides that after every 67 seconds,one American citizen develops the symptoms of Alzheimer. By 2050,the frequency will swell to one individual in every 33 seconds. In2013, 84, 767 patients succumbed to the disease. The figure makesAlzheimer the sixth leading cause of death nationally and the fifthin the late adulthood. In 2015, unpaid caregivers provided more than17.9 billion hours valued at $217 billion. Also, the patients’health expenses during the same year amounted to $226 billion.

Thearticle is informative on the current figures and trends. It willsuffice the final paper with facts and information regarding theburden of Alzheimer in the American society. It will also assist inconfirming or criticizing the works of other authors since the bodyproviding the information possesses authority and interest in thedisease.

Wimo,Anders, Jönsson, Linus, Bond, John, Prince, Martin, Winblad, Bengtand Alzheimer Disease International. &quotThe worldwide economicimpact of dementia 2010.&quot Alzheimer`s&amp Dementia9.1 (2013): 1-11.

Theauthors approach the study with a primary objective of comprehendingthe costs incurred by individuals, families, government institutionsand healthcare providers owing to Alzheimer. The inquiry followed aprevalence-based social approach. The gross burden was drawn fromdata gathered by the World Health Organization and the World Bank

Theauthors found out that the estimated worldwide annual cost ofAlzheimer’s are in the excess of $604 billion. More than 70% of thecost is incurred by citizens in the developed countries. Thehypothesis for this is that the residents in the first world stateshave a higher life-expectancy. The authors concur with TheAlzheimer’s Association (2015) that while direct medical costs arelower in the industrialized regions, there is a big burden ofinformal care. In the middle and low-income countries, informal carealso accounts for the greatest expenditure.

Thearticle concludes that the worldwide burden is inequitablydistributed. The authors also inferred that the cost would swellsignificantly in the next few decades. In addition, in thedeveloping countries, the disease encumbrance is likely to shift fromthe informal to the streamlined healthcare setting. To avert thetrend, the authors propose an investment in research and adoption ofefficient practices in early diagnosis and care. The article will beinformative to the final paper in laying emphasis on the health costof Alzheimer. It will also confirm the information gathered fromother sources that portray the changing patterns of costs andprevalence.

Aprahamian,Ivan, Florindo Stella, and Orestes V. Forlenza. “New TreatmentStrategies For Alzheimer`s Disease: Is There A Hope?” IndianJ Med Res 138.4(2013): 449–460.

Accordingto this source, Alzheimer`s disease (AD) is an incurableneurodegenerative condition that develops gradually. However, theauthors investigate possible medical breakthroughs aimed at treatingTau and amyloid pathology in the disease. The researchers providethat pharmacologists are optimistic of discovering a viable cure forthe disease as there are drug elements in phase 2 and 3 of controlledtests.

Thesource will be essential in the research as it provides empiricalevidence of the number of people affected by AD in Asia and comparesit to the Western Countries. Furthermore, the source uses statisticaldata from diverse and reliable bodies, such as the World HealthOrganization (WHO), to predict the prevalence of the condition in thefuture. The article will also provide essential data needed tocompare the prevalence of the disease in India and the westerncountries.

Theinvestigators conclude that AD will be a serious threat in manycountries in the future. Fortunately, the research asserts thatpharmacologists have established the target molecules in AD.Therefore, it points out that there is hope for developing a reliableremedy for the condition. The analysis provided is reliable becausethe authors have used empirical data and peer-reviewed findings inthe treatment of the AD.

Sperling,Reisa A. et al. “Toward Defining the Preclinical Stages ofAlzheimer’s Disease: Recommendations from the National Institute onAging-Alzheimer’s Association Workgroups on Diagnostic Guidelinesfor Alzheimer’s Disease.” Alzheimer’s&amp Dementia : The Journal of The Alzheimer’s Association7.3 (2011): 280–292. PMC.Web. 30 June 2016.

Inmany cases, AD patients do not realize they are suffering from thecondition until the clinical symptoms begin to appear. Unfortunately,the disease is often irreversible at that phase therefore, patientscan only receive treatment for suppressing the symptoms temporarily.Sperling et al. (2011) will be essential in the research as itprovides comprehensive strategies for identifying the condition inits ‘preclinical’ stage, which offers the best opportunity formedical intervention.

Thearticle will also contribute to the research through the provision ofinformation needed to identify people with genetics that arevulnerable to AD, as well as, clinically healthy older people.Moreover, the information will be helpful in understanding the stagesthat individuals should begin taking medication intended to controlthe Alzheimer disease.

Theauthors provide that 13.5 million Americans will be affected by theillness by 2050. Medicare will incur treatment costs worth $627billion. Fortunately, the article proposes an intervention approachthat healthcare providers, and other stakeholders in the industry,can use to reduce the number of patients by 57 %. Additionally, theapproach will decrease the Medicare expenses to $344 billion.

Thecontent of the source is reliable because it is based onpeer-reviewed articles that are supported by a broad range ofempirical data. Besides, the information is valid in the modernmedical environment since the study was published less than fiveyears ago.

McCaulley,Mark E. and Kira A. Grush. “Alzheimer’s Disease: Exploring theRole of Inflammation and Implications for Treatment.”International Journal of Alzheimer’sDisease2015 (2015):1-10 pages

Thisarticle focuses on the strategies of preventing Alzheimer caused byinflammation. The study will be essential in the research for itprovides another approach of using evidence-based principles to treatthe AD variety. The authors provide a new treatment approach by firstbringing out similarities between AD and other mental diseases.

Theessay provides a big list of mental conditions that have symptomsrelated to AD. In addition, it lists potential drugs that can help tosuppress the clinical symptoms of the syndrome. A majority of thesources focus on treatment methods that use drugs for suppressingclinical symptoms. However, the study offers alternative remedies forpeople suffering from inflammation and AD.

Peer-revieweddata support the information in the article. Also, the study waspublished one year ago. Subsequently, the facts and findings theauthors have presented are valid in the modern medical care industry.

Demakis,George J. &quotDisability in Alzheimer`s Disease: Causes,Consequences, and Economic Considerations.&quot Journalof health and human services administration30.3 (2007): 292-305.

Thearticle explores the various kinds of disabilities caused byAlzheimer`s disease (AD). In the assessment, the author examinescauses, impacts, and economic consequences arising from thecondition. Also, the author highlights economic and social costsresulting from the resultant disability. The author collected datafrom the patients with AD and through interviewing the caregivers.The findings from the study indicate that disabilities arising fromAD increase the economic costs to the healthcare system. Studiessuggest that Alzheimer`s disease mostly caused by genetic, lifestyle,and environmental factors that affect the functioning of the brainover a given period. The treatment of the condition is difficult anddelicate hence making the disease generate adverse effects on thehealthcare system. Social and emotional costs are higher due to thespecialized care of a patient to enable him or her to live normally.He also addressed the types of treatment, including pharmacologicalthat can help eliminate disability on a patient. The author lateroffers areas of future research that can aid in addressing theprimary causes of Alzheimer`s disease. The study is instrumental inunderstanding the consequences it has on the healthcare system. Theauthor considers that the findings will help the policy makers andclinicians to develop better intervention measures to minimizeadverse effects.

Getsios,Denis Blume, Steve, Ishak, K. Jack, Maclaine, D. Grant. &quotCostEffectiveness of Donepezil in the Treatment of Mild to ModerateAlzheimer`s Disease.&quot PharmacoEconomics28.5 (2010): 411-27.

Accordingto the article, research findings in the UK advise that limitingtreatment of AD with cholinesterase inhibitors for patients with amoderate reduction in their cognitive abilities is cost effective tohealth care. Nonetheless, the authors claim that the allegations havebeen a subject of debate among the policy makers. In theirassessment, the authors sought to explore the probable limitations ofthe current models. The aim was to generate better approximations ofcost-effectiveness in the UK following donepezil treatment. Theauthors used recent data available from credible sources such asgovernment and health institution as well as simulation techniques.The findings show that diagnosis for patients with mild to moderateAD reduces overall medical costs by about £2300 for every patient.The inclusion of a caregiver results in more saving reaching up to£4700 per patient. The patients undergoing donepezil treatmentacquire a discounted gain in QALYs of 0.11 while their caregiversgain an average of about 0.01. Cost savings for patients at severestages are modest. The research findings suggest that donepeziltreatment has more health benefits and economical. Further, theauthors observe that benefits and cost savings could be higher iftreatment is started at early stages of the disease.

Kaskie,Brian, Sarah Coddington, and Catherine H. Abrams. &quotA StrategicResponse to the Challenges Presented by Older Patients withAlzheimer`s Disease and Other Types of Dementia.&quot Journalof Healthcare Management49.1 (2004): 32,45 discussion 45-46.

Thearticle investigates strategic interventions to mitigate thechallenges arising from Alzheimer`s disease and other forms ofdementia in older patients. According to the authors, clinicaldementia is a severe and common health condition affecting peopleover the age of 65. Researchers are engaged in experiments to helpgenerate cure and other forms of interventions for the disease.Alzheimer`s disease has adverse effects on the healthcare system. Aspart of the response, the clinicians are required to monitor thepatients as well as offer constant support. Doing so reduces thenumber of clinicians available for other assignments in aninstitution. The authors observe that clinical administrators faceenormous challenges in the treatment of patients with AD and otherkinds of dementia. The article gives an operational strategy throughdefining the challenges and presenting the viable solutions. Further,the authors show factors that will influence successfulimplementation of the listed responses. The findings show that thechallenges presented by AD can be eliminated by 2024 if healthexecutives and policy makers use strategic responses highlighted inthe article.

WorksCited

Alzheimer’s,Association. &quot2015 Alzheimer`s disease facts and figures.&quotAlzheimer`s&amp dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer`s Association11.3 (2015): 332.

Aprahamian,Ivan, Florindo Stella, and Orestes V. Forlenza. “New TreatmentStrategies For Alzheimer`s Disease: Is There A Hope?” IndianJ Med Res 138.4(2013): 449–460.

Demakis,George J. &quotDisability in Alzheimer`s Disease: Causes,Consequences, and Economic Considerations.&quot Journalof health and human services administration30.3 (2007): 292-305.

Getsios,Denis Blume, Steve, Ishak, K. Jack, Maclaine, D. Grant. &quotCostEffectiveness of Donepezil in the Treatment of Mild to ModerateAlzheimer`s Disease.&quot PharmacoEconomics28.5 (2010): 411-27.

Kaskie,Brian, Sarah Coddington, and Catherine H. Abrams. &quotA StrategicResponse to the Challenges Presented by Older Patients withAlzheimer`s Disease and Other Types of Dementia.&quot Journalof Healthcare Management49.1 (2004): 32,45 discussion 45-46.

McCaulley,Mark E. and Kira A. Grush. “Alzheimer’s Disease: Exploring theRole of Inflammation and Implications for Treatment.”International Journal of Alzheimer’sDisease2015 (2015):1-10 pages

Sperling,Reisa A. et al. “Toward Defining the Preclinical Stages ofAlzheimer’s Disease: Recommendations from the National Institute onAging-Alzheimer’s Association Workgroups on Diagnostic Guidelinesfor Alzheimer’s Disease.” Alzheimer’s&amp Dementia : The Journal of The Alzheimer’s Association7.3 (2011): 280–292. PMC.Web. 30 June 2016.

Wimo,Anders, Jönsson, Linus, Bond, John, Prince, Martin, Winblad, Bengtand Alzheimer Disease International. &quotThe worldwide economicimpact of dementia 2010.&quot Alzheimer`s&amp Dementia9.1 (2013): 1-11.