Studyof Uygur Visual Arts
Uygurvisual arts and culture is an ethnic art in the ancient Chineseperiods. The arts were in the form of expressions of the individual`slifestyle and social culture. The importance of the art was to recordthe activities, the events, and the feeling of a person at aparticular time. Basing on this, the paper intends to describe theUygur visual arts, Chinese local art resource and the ethnicity ofUygur. The art was mainly developed in an Autonomous region ofXinjiang Uygur. The history of the Uygur people can be divided intofour phases according to studies conducted by the ancientarcheologist (Zsuzsanna 50). The pre-imperial phase, the imperialphase, the input phase and the Mongol phase and a developing, modernphase these phases developed with an increase in time.
Theaim of the report is to use different the information providedconcerning the various arts in Chinese to promote their ethnicity andthe cultural backgrounds involved. From the various anthropologicalaspects presented, the development of this art mainly affects theexpression of the human feelings to the community as a whole. The artalso proves to be the identity of the people involved with theirethical characteristics present in the artworks.
Theartwork was developed at different surfaces including stones andfrescoes, to sculptures that were designed by people with aparticular aim of the art preservation (Zsuzsanna, 38). Some of theartwork was ornamental and was used as decorations on ornaments thatwere used by women. The patterns tend to be decorative and at timesthe decorations were displayed during cultural ceremonies andrituals.TheHistory of the Uyghur
Theorigin of these people associated with the Uyghur artwork, Sanethical source of people of the nationalities and the Chinese. Theycan be considered as the original inhabitants of the Xinjiang townwith a vast history. One of the ancient people who were deemed to beassociated with the Uyghur art was Muhammad Imin Bughra. Theinformation is however in contrast to the previous historians whoargue that the Uyghur from the city of Xinjiang originated from aparticular tribe known as the Tiele (Dolkun 283).
Thedevelopment of the culture later in the ninth century resulted into apolitical force, thanks to the presentation of the numerousevolutions of the culture and artworks to different territorialunits. The driving force of the art work was the political, socialand cultural way of life adapted as a result of the migration fromMongolia to Xinjiang due the collapse of the Uyghur Khaganate, whichlater to replaced the Han Chinese. To date, different forms of thecultural group are believed to be modern and the traditionaldescendants. Despite this, however, researchers have argued that themodern Uyghur are not the direct descendants of the traditionalUyghur.
Thediscovery of well-preserved artworks that were in the form of Uyghurin the different parts of Europe clearly indicated the efforts madein the migration of the first Uyghur people. The people were believedto be speaking Tocharian languages. Despite the arguments that theartworks were not Uyghur in nature, it is argued that indeed theartworks are in close resemblance to the modern artworks that aredeveloped by the modern Uygur (Russell-smith, 298). The artworks,however, are linked directly from the ancient ethical tribe, as theartworks were in close resemblance.
Formsof Uygur Visual Arts
Thereare different ways that the Uygur arts were represented on thevarious surfaces of questions. For instance, the artwork was in theform of abstract patterns. The model was carefully crafted to thesurface of the issue and majorly on ornamental products of thepeople. The designs were developed to represent the appearance of theexperience at hand. The patterns that were used to produce thisartwork is influenced by the different aspect of the environment, forinstance, the patterns created by the birds while developing theirnests, the waves of the oceans, the flow of water in the rivers, andthe winds that form currents. The order of nature plays a significantrole in the development of the patterns. These instincts haveresulted to the development of the patterns on the respectivesurfaces. The patterns were mainly on ornaments as described aboveand the dresses they produced. An example of the form representedbelow.
Figure1 Diagrammatic representation of adel display
Anotherimportant aspect of the extraordinary form of Uygur visual arts isthe form of geometrical shapes that are remarkable on the surfacesrepresented. The art of Uygur is well known by the decorativefeatures it develops. The geometrical shapes tend at some point totake an Islamic developed culture which has origins from the Arabiancountries (Finley, 46). The use of the geometric patterns is in theform of floral patterns on constructed buildings, and the utensilsthat are used in homesteads. Important geometrical shapes weredeveloped on the fabrics of the natives. The geometrical patternsrepresent the identity of the ethical group to the other communities.Despite the many different forms used, this was the most popular formof artwork that was employed in the ancient times. An example of theform of geometrical representation is as shown,
Figure2. Diagrammatic representation of geometrical form
Fromthe description of the artworks, the mode of development described tohave preserved the culture. The visual representation acts as animportant aspect in the elaboration of the art. The developeddecorative style represents an optical flaunt, this type possesses anaesthetic perception of exaggeration, fervency, and magnificence andover elaboration of the beauty of the art. The simplicity representeddisplays its importance to the ethical development of the community.The artwork possession of all these qualities accounts for a formalrepresentation of its importance in the cultural preservation.
Thedual construction of images represented also possesses a significantrole in the preservation of the ethical culture. The art on thesculptures is crafted into important layers that are not necessarilyoccurrence and can preserve the cultural ethics. This art is used tomaintain the ethical cultures that are presently used as a referencepoint for scholars. The image order developed has a framing influenceon the cultural experiences of the people (Finley, 46). Some of theexperience that was represented in the pictures was important to thepeople as instances of worship purposes.
Significantuses of Uygur visual arts
Theimportance of the art has been passed from generations togenerations, and the change in a generation has helped in thepreservation of their identity. With the art, the ethical communitywas identifiable from the other communities. This included thepatterns on the clothing, the patterns on their decorative ornamentsand in some instances the patterns in their houses. The designs werecarefully crafted into their place of interest to preserve theiridentity for the coming generations. Exhibitions were also madefrequently and different artworks presented for viewing by thepublic. This enhanced creativity and development of many Uygur visualartworks.
TheUygur artwork was significant in the development of socioculturalconstruction purposes. Instances of the Uygur-Islam architectural artwas used in the construction of buildings. These buildings were usedto decorate and finish the houses to give them a distinctive look.These artworks were widely developed among the ethical communitiesand had been used to preserve the important cultural aspects of thecommunity. In the ancient times, all the architectural activitiesemployed that Uygur visual arts. Some of these artworks for instancewere used as a source of information about the age of the building.To date, these artworks are still being employed in constructionworks. An example of the artwork that was used in the ancient timesis represented above in the example.
Theart has been used in the development of religion from one instance toanother. The design of these artworks led to their use in theconstruction of the different religious places. This includes mosquesand temples. The artwork was used to decorate the entire buildings intheir religious groups with painting on the walls painted in theUyghur art. At some point, the art was used in the different HolyScriptures used by the different religions. This in return has causedthe preservation of cultural and ethical importance of the artwork.The artwork has also been used as a form of calligraphic fonts todevelop essential Arabic words that act as decorations in mosques,and Arabic houses, An example is illustrated below
Figure3. Example of Uyghur artwork on a building
Thedevelopment of significant culture has also been caused by the use ofthe Uyghur artistic identity. The patterns and the geometrical shapesthat were used in the elaboration of the ornamental and clothing ofthe people was an important aspect of cultural enhancement. Theimportance of culture has been observed in the different ethicalgroups that existed worldwide. The distinctive characteristic ofthese moral groups can be based on the way of life and the mode ofdeveloping clothing. Thus the essential to produce decorated clothesenhanced the ethical culture. The Uyghur use their artwork to producethe fabrics with different patterns that have proven to be a means ofcultural preservation. An example of a Uyghur cultural dressing withthe distinctive pattern on it is shown below
Figure4. Representation of a Uyghur pattern on a dressing
TheUyghur Artistic identity
Thedevelopment of this artistic identity has had a powerful impact onthe education systems of parts of Asia. It has created a richcultural history in the Asian region. The artistic identity of Uyghurartworks has preserved the history and the character and thus keepingthem alive. The artwork has been used as a reference point in thehistorical events that took part in the ancient Asia. The artworkshave had an impact on the development of their traditional culture tothe present time. The impact that has been brought about by theUyghur artistic work will be discussed briefly in the report below.
Theinfluence that the Uyghur art has had in the decorative systems ofthe ancient and present Asia is evidence. Despite the fact that theart has been used to preserve their culture, the importance of theartwork has been seen in the developing decorative styles in theirunique flavor. The persistence that has been observed primarily inthe dressing, jewelry, bed sheets carpets doors, windows and otherforms of modern structures has been influenced by the ancient Uyghurartistic identity. When observed, the designs developed are unique inshape and patterns, the organization, and the subjective colorsapplied attracted other ethical communities to use the artwork intheir social developments and functions. For instance, the Buddhistused the Uyghur art to build their gods and their temples, and thepainting on the walls of the temples was developed in the Uyghur art.This has helped in the preservation of the community`s identity fromone generation to the other.
Theimportance of the Uyghur photographic art has led to the developmentof an important form of communication in the ancient Asian time. Thepatterns and figures developed at some point were used to conveyrelevant information to the community, due to this influence, a formof communication was developed from this. The communication systems,however, was a kind of cultural preservation. The other impact it hadwas in the development of music as a form of art. As a result of thedeveloped form of communication that developed music, the artisticnature of the Uyghur was preserved and the impacts have been seen inthe different aspects of the modern world.
TheEthnicity of the Uyghur
Theethnicity of the Uyghur can be described as the real visualrepresentation of the Uyghur artistic work and their identity throughthe developed artifacts. The ethical characteristics that arerepresented in the artwork represented. For instance, the Uyghur havebeen presented to be sociocultural active. This is because a lot ofthe artistic development has been associated with the socio-culturaldevelopment of their lives. Instances of these cultural incidentsinclude the art of customs and traditions, modeling, and activitiesof coloring. A lot of Uyghur cultural art has been representedartistically in the artworks developed in the ancient times. Some ofthese works have been assimilated by different communities. This hasbeen an evidence of the ethical evolution of the establishedcommunity that has been influenced by the artistic works.
Fromthe report, we view the Uyghur has a community that has recentlygained the independence they deserved and thus affecting theirethical developments. As a result of the independence, it tends toattract a sense of social status in the society (Russell-smith, 289).With the help of the artworks they develop, they would have a senseof the intergroup boundary. The boundary would thus produce ethicalgroups that could otherwise cause the development of the ethnicity.As a result of these, the people of the Uyghur community will developthe ethical groups that would have distinctive ethicalcharacteristics. This can be identified and thus linked to aparticular ethnical group. With the help of their artwork, theethnical group can thus be identified. These ethnical groups withdistinctive characters have been essential in the helping thecommunity preserve their cultural identities.
Beinga minority ethical group in China, they have a unique identity theyhave created that has put emphasis on the psychology and thebehaviors that are experienced mainly in the minority groups. Theethical group tends to contact them thus enhancing the socio-culturalactivities that are associated with their way of life. For instance,they develop cultural strengths that enhance economic development.Being a minority in the ethical groups represented in China, theUyghur will tend to develop a mental resistance of issues brought up.These at times cause interethnic clashes or misunderstanding betweenthe involved parties. The ethnic dispute can also be caused bydeveloped competition between the two ethnics group brought about bythe development of artifacts. The different elements in theelaboration of the artwork, the style, and the representation can bea source of ethical conflict. Despite this, it`s evidence that thereis unity portrayed by the different ethnical groups represented inthe case.
Religiousfeatures represented in the Visual Arts
Theethnicity displayed by the visual arts of the Uyghur is evident andconscious. The artwork possesses a distinctive ethical featurerepresented only in the Uyghur artworks. The artworks are developedby their embodiments of their moral characteristic. The feeling topass on the moral beliefs from one generation to another has becomean inheritable belief that needs to be fulfilled from one generationto another. The ethical culture that is passed from one generation toanother is represented in the artworks they develop (Russell-smith,287). This is also a form of cultural preservation. In the ancientdays, days when modernization had yet produced, the ethical groupingshad developed social groupings to help preserve their cultural andmoral values. Major of these values majored on the religious aspectsof the society. The devotion that was formulated in the ancient timemade the effect seep deep into their lives. These, as a result, ledto the development of religious and ethical identity. This wasevident in their artwork as the above artwork was used in thedevelopment of religious scriptures and carvings.
Thedevelopment of religion amongst the Uyghur was a factor that wasdeveloped internally and there were no external forces responsiblefor that. It was as a form of inheritance from one generation toanother that caused the widespread religious beliefs amongst theethical group. With the internal factors that have led to thedevelopment of the spiritual aspects in Uyghur, their art developedin the ancient time has played a significant role in the developmentof religion. The effect on religion has affected not only the Uygurbut also other social groups like the Buddhists. Major religiousbuildings have been renovated and constructed with the Uyghur ancientartwork (Dolkun, 290). Mosques in the southern part of Xinjiang havebeen developed in a perspective that is attractive in the Uyghur art.
Fromthe development of these artistic works, numerous mosques and templesworldwide are adapting the Uygur creative nature. The mosques havemainly abandoned the Islamic-Arabic arts and in return, they havechanged the new art of decoration. These religious paintings thathave been assimilated by other faiths are clear evidence of thereligious emotions of the Uygur ethical tribe. As the use of theirartworks is used, the religious beliefs are developed and thusimproving the moral development of the Uygur people. These straitentheir religious, social and cultural beliefs and thus gain a muchgreater possibility for their art to retain their traditionalconservation features.
Fromthe above report, the importance of the Uygur artistic history hasproven to be essential for the preservation of history and culturalimportance. The use of the artwork has been significantly adopted bydifferent people globally regardless of their social, cultural andreligious backgrounds. We also see that the cultural activity wasinherited from one generation to another to preserve their cultureand traditions. The artwork was responsible for the unity shownbetween the people of the Uygur community (Zsuzsanna, 48). They had aunifying factor that acted as a source of unity. The report alsoindicated the importance of the Uyghur artworks as to preserve thecultural importance of the people and as a source of development usedin the construction of modern houses. From this, we can conclude thatthe importance of the Uyghur artwork has been essential in thedevelopment of social, cultural and ethical developments of theUyghur people.
Finley,Joanne N. Smith. The art of symbolic resistance: Uyghur identitiesand Uyghur-Han relations in contemporary Xinjiang. Brill, 2013.Print.
Vainker,S. J. Caves of the Thousand Buddhas: Chinese Art from the Silk Route.British Museum Publications for the Trustees of the British Museum,1990. Print.
Russell-Smith,Lilla. Uygur Patronage in Dunhuang: Regional Art centers on theNorthern Silk Road in the tenth and eleventh centuries. Vol. 14.Brill, 2005. Print.
Kamberi,Dolkun. Uyghurs and Uyghur identity. Radio Free Asia, 2015. Print.
BikfalvyRussell-Smith, Lilla. "Wives and Patrons: Uygur Political andArtistic Influence in Tenth-Century Dunhuang." Acta Orientalia56.2-4 (2003): 401-428. Print.
Gulacsi,Zsuzsanna. "The Dates and Styles of Uygur Manichaean Art. A NewRadiocarbon Date and its Implication for the Study of East CentralAsian Art." Arts Antiques 58.1 (2003): 5-33. Print.
Huan,T. I. A. N. "Visual Display and Aesthetic Display——UygurAesthetic Culture [J]." Journal of Xinjiang University(Philosophy, Humanities & Social Sciences) 1 (2010): 026.Print.
Kamberi,Dolkun. "A survey of Uyghur documents from Turpan and theirimportance for Asian and Central Eurasian history." CentralAsian Survey18.3 (1999): 281-301. Print.