Example-Few days as I was driving, I received a phone call. I picked thephone and reasoned the traffic was busy hence, I would concentrateon the road. Unfortunately, I failed to notice when the traffic lightturned red. This illustrates that at that moment, I had aninattentional blindness. I failed to see the traffic light changingred, but this is not because I had vision defects.
Example-Recently, I was having a conversation with my mother in the presenceof my young brother. Since our topic was sensitive, I did not want mybrother to listen. When I looked at him, I noticed he was not lookingat us, and I assumed he was not listening. To my surprise, he wasvery attentive to whatever we were saying.
Short-termmemory- This are the memories that do not last for more than thirtyseconds unless frequently rehearsed in that timeframe. Since I have aproblem remembering people phone numbers, I will keep memorizing themin my mind repetitively until I cannot forget them anymore.
Frithargues that even though human senses are intact, and their brains arefunctioning normally, they do not have direct access to the outsideworld. Even though they feel they have direct access, this is just anillusion that the brain creates. Further, Frith argues that humanbeings do not have direct access to the functioning of the brains.This is evident when he explains that human brains make assumptionshence, to have direct access to the functioning of the brain is anillusion created by the brain. He gives an example of a person typingvery fast on a keyboard. The person does not realize how the keysfeel on the fingertips.
Chabrisand Simon topic on the illusion of memory argue that people’smemories are less reliable. Additionally, the vividness of memorydoes not guarantee its accuracy. They agree with Frith argument thatmemory fades with time while interests, desires, and beliefs distortit. They all agree that specific brain activity can respond to newinformation without the participant reporting it.
Basedon Frith’s theory about how the brain creates a mental world,people play the role of logical thinking. However, Frith argues thatmental world is an illusion that the brain create. It creates themind, as well as images of the world. Through the stimulation thatthe brain receives through neurons, it interprets and perceives theworld in its own way.
Inhis conclusion, Frith argues that the brain does not always presentthe world or its own functioning accurately to us. Our brain does notalways let us know everything it knows. It creates illusions thatmake human beings fell “being-in-the-world.” The first illusioninvolves the direct contact with objects in the physical world. Thesecond illusion states that mental world is private and isolated.
Frith’sdescription of brain imaging and brain functioning differ fromLinden’s description. Linden argues that brain imaging is acritical component of working memory. On the other hand, Frith brainimaging studies show that pain of social rejection or physical paininvolves the same brain area.
Accordingto the article, “Centralcancellation of self-produced tickle sensation,”when the stimulus is produced, more activities are in thesomatosensory cortex and less activities are in the tactile stimulus.This difference is because of cerebellum predicting the specificconsequences of sensory movements.
Inferiorolive neuron (found in the medulla) is related to sensory predictionbecause it predicts the sensory consequences of the motor command.Sensory stimuli influence its activities though inferior olive neuronis not a sensory relay.
Knowingthat the activity in an area of the brain helps us understand aparticular behavior because it creates a better understanding of theactivities that occur in the brain. As a result, it gives rise to aparticular behavior.
Ican no longer trust my brain anymore. This is one concept that I havelearned in this semester. Based on the brain imaging, patientstudies, and psychological experiments, ChrisFrith,a neuropsychologist explored the relationship between brain and mindas well as, how the brain creates a mental world. From Fritharguments, I now understand some concepts that I always regarded asdifficult and unclear.
Pseudoscienceis the act of claiming a theory or treatment to be scientific, but itis not. The three warning signs of pseudoscience include
It cannot be tested- It is impossible to test pseudoscience, and pseudoscientists always find excuses so that their theories are not tested. Normally, evidence does not support the claims.
The claim has no limits- Normally theories in science are specific, while treatments have limits. On the contrary, pseudoscientists claim that their theories and treatment are applicable to every situation.
In response to evidence, basic pseudoscience theory does not change- Scientific theories adapt and update themselves in response to the new evidences. On the contrary, pseudoscience theory maintains its initials claims and sometimes ignores the counter evidences.
Oneof the dangers of pseudoscience that might affect the purchase or theuse of a program such as NLP Life Training is whereby the claimantavoids peer review and outside verification. This involves otherscientists reviewing the scientific-journal articles.Pseudoscientists avoid such scrutiny.
Falsifiabilityis the inherent testability of a scientific hypothesis. In addition,it is the belief that for any hypothesis to be accepted asscientific, it must be inherently disprovable. Falsifiability is avital tool for generating scientific hypothesis and theories thoseare realistic and testable. When using the criterion offalsifiability to evaluate the information for products,pseudoscience can use it to falsify the truth when there aresufficient knowledge and resources.