Patient Scenario



Thecomponents used for the physical examination of Mr. Smith valuesincluded a clinical thermometer to measure the body temperature.Besides, the doctor also used a sphygmomanometer to measure Mr.Smith`s blood pressure. Application of a finger to determinepalpation also took place as well as the utilization of a stethoscopeto ensure the collection of precise results of the heart, lungs andthe movements of the bowel. The sphygmomanometer has unique figuresthat enable it to take accurate results through differentiation. That said medical practitioners use this apparatus to listen to thepalpitation of the heart for the detection of malfunctions. Tomeasure blood pressure, the doctor takes note of the ratio differenceand compares them with the standard result of the patient.

Besides,the use of a sphygmomanometer to record the level of the bloodpressure requires specialized knowledge. Diastolic is the minimumpressure in arteries when the ventricles are filled with blood whichis pumping chambers of the heart while systolic is the peak pressurewhen ventricles contract. The top numerator defines the systolicblood pressure of an individual whereas the lower numerator definesthe diastolic pressure of a person. The significance of thedifference between the two figures gives complication or theexistence of the abnormal instances (Carpenito, 2006). The twocharacters are primary in the identification of the health conditionof a patient. That is, the nurse can know if the patient is sufferingfrom high blood pressure through the irregular systolic and diastolicheartbeats recorded. The official figure of blood pressure rangeprevails on a ratio of 120/80. Based on the findings from Mr. Smith’sblood pressure results, the physician concluded that his bloodpressure was not in a normal condition. The result showed a ratio of160/100 thus arising to the conclusion that the patient`s bloodpressure was high as compared to the average results. This shows thatthe blood pressure of Smith was not at a normal state. Somebody wouldeasily know that the blood pressure of Mr. Smith was not normalbecause of the range of the values which was obtained from thelaboratory values when compared to the referencing values. Due to thehigh blood pressure Mr. Smith had, he was exposed to many riskfactors such as heart failure which is caused when the heart musclesweaken. This leads to it working less efficiently. High bloodpressure can also cause stroke. This is when the brain is deprived ofnutrients and oxygen which leads to the death of brain cells. Kidneyfailure is also caused by high blood pressure. This is due to thedamage of the large arteries.

Thenurse had ordered Mr. Smith to carry out hemoglobin test in thelaboratory. The physician ordered for this test so as to screen fordiseases that might have affected the red blood cells. The doctorfound out that the number of hemoglobin was less than the referencingvalues.

Thephysician was interested in determining whether oxygen transportationin the body was at a normal state. She took a sample of blood andtested the hemoglobin value and found out that there was a deficit ofblood cells for transporting oxygen when compared to the referencingvalues. Based on the laboratory results, blood samples, and urinesamples taken helped the doctor to obtain several results. Aftercomparison of the lab results with the reference values, the medicalofficer derived the following statements the level of K+ was lowerthan the average. Following the test, the results indicated that Hbwas lower than the referencing average. That said, the number of theplatelet count had also reduced significantly. The amount of the HCO3and glucose level in the body was higher than the referencing value.According to the interpretations, the sum of renin was ranging in thenormal value required in the body as by the results that wereobtained. There was an abnormal recording of Hct. The level of Hctwas much lower than the referencing values. The value of urinaryaldosterone was in the normal range. This shows that Mr. Smith had nodefect in his urinary content of aldosterone. Besides, the level ofthe cortisol in the body had risen beyond the regular referencinglist. In conclusion, most of the samples recorded a significant risebeyond the typical rates.

Mr.Smith underwent several procedures of imaging such as the MRI and theCT. Both methods aimed at finding the condition of the prostateadenocarcinoma (Kavey, 2006). The doctor used several apparatus tocheck the position of the refractory hypokalemia. The production ofACTH advocated for the adoption of the measure. The results showedthat there was an increased level of the cortisol in circulation. CTwhich is an imaging device mainly tries to identify the causes ofintestinal obstruction due to adrenal glands enlargements while MRImain work is to determine metastasis cancer of prostate up to osseoustissue.

Cortisol.This is a medical term used to refer to a particular hormone producedin the adrenal glands of the human body. It is usually produced whena person who suffers from reduced level of glucose concentration andstress in the body (Waltz etal.,2010). The imaging results which were obtained from the laboratory itshowed that the intestine was blocked due to the enlargement of theadrenal glands. The damage of the intestine would cause thedisruption of the body functions (Parahoo, 2014). The use ofscientific methods such the CT and MRI has enabled the medicalpractitioners to be able to inspect patients and treat themconveniently. When doctors have taken samples from the patient to thelaboratory, they tend to compare the results they get to the normalresults of a healthy person. The medics have a scale range ofreference values which they usually compare to the results which theyhave obtained. If the values obtained lie within the range of thereference data, the patient is deemed to be normal. If the dataobtained from the lab lie below or above the normal range values, thepatient is said to be abnormal.


Carpenito-Moyet,L. J. (2006). Handbook of nursing diagnosis. Lippincott Williams &ampWilkins.

diseasedand healthy structure and functioning

Kavey,R. E. W., Allada, V., Daniels, S. R., Hayman, L. L., McCrindle, B.W., Newburger, J. W., … &amp Steinberger, J. (2006).Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in High-Risk Pediatric Patients AScientific Statement From the American Heart Association Expert Panelon Population and Prevention Science the Councils on CardiovascularDisease in the Young, Epidemiology and Prevention, Nutrition,Physical Activity and Metabolism, High Blood Pressure Research,Cardiovascular Nursing, and the Kidney in Heart Disease and theInterdisciplinary Working Group on Quality of Care and OutcomesResearch: Endorsed by the American Academy of …. Circulation,114(24), 2710-2738.

Parahoo,K. (2014). Nursing research: principles, process, and issues.Palgrave Macmillan.

Polit,D. F., &amp Beck, C. T. (2004). Nursing research: Principles andmethods. Lippincott Williams &amp Wilkins.

Townsend,M. C. (2014). Psychiatric mental health nursing: Concepts of care inevidence-based practice. FA Davis.

Waltz,C. F., Strickland, O. L., &amp Lenz, E. R. (Eds.). (2010).Measurement in nursing and health research. Springer PublishingCompany.