Parenting questions

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1.Problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping.

Problem-focused coping involves devising ways in order to solve aparticular problem that is causing stress in an adolescent. Forinstance if the adolescent is ridiculed by his peers for a uniquehaircut, he may opt to change the hairstyle or report the matter tothe teachers. This type of coping is usually applicable to problemswith a feasible solution, considering the amount of resources that anadolescent can lay his hands on.

Emotion-focused coping involves countering stress by adjusting one’semotions in order to view the issue from a different perspective. Oneway of coping with stress, is through changing the attitude towardsthe stressor. For instance, an adolescent will decide to see the hardconcepts in class as a motivator to work hard rather than somethingthat causes stress. This kind of stress coping is especiallyimportant in stressors that an adolescent cannot change. They includefactors such as death of a close relative, divorce of parents, anddumping by a girlfriend or a boyfriend. In such a situation, it isbetter to change one’s emotions because the problems cannot bereversed.

The two stress-coping mechanisms usually function hand in hand whensolving problems. It rarely happens that an adolescent will use onecoping mechanism when solving a particular stressor. As psychologistssay, the two coping mechanisms are better off than avoidance coping.The latter involves doing nothing and wishing the problems away. Bothstrategies are also important in creating resilience in the teenager.

2.Current Trends in Alcohol abuse among Adolescents and young adults.

The 1970’s marked the peak of alcohol abuse among teenagers. Astudy conducted on 46,000 adolescents between 1990 and the early 21stCentury, revealed that alcohol abuse by adolescents had taken adownward trend. The study also revealed that adolescent boys are morelikely to indulge in binge drinking than their female counterparts.The report also noted that the transition from high school to collegecreated more instances of alcohol abuse among young adults. Thestress of coping with the new environment and the perceived freedomare the primary contributing factors to alcohol abuse by young adultsin college. Pregaming- the act of consuming hard liquor before goingout to the club- is also a trend among many college students. Themain idea behind pregaming is to ensure that the adolescents do notspend more on alcohol while in the club because by the time theyarrive there, they would already be tipsy.

Binge drinking is proving to be a problem according to recentstudies. In a study conducted in 140 campuses, 30% of the studentsreported to have finished five drinks in the past one week. That muchalcohol in such a short interval is what amounts to binge drinkingaccording to the researchers. The practice is becoming popular amongmany college entrants, especially females.

Consequences of drinking among adolescents and young adults areimmense. Among the recurring problems, are engaging in risky sexualbehavior such as casual sex and sex orgies. Young female adults areincreasingly indulging in binge drinking and engaging in unprotectedsex with multiple partners. The female binge drinkers are marked as‘high risk’ because most of them engage in the risky behaviorwhen they are not under contraceptives. Other consequences of bingedrinking include fallback in studies, health problems, and issueswith personal hygiene.

3.Difference between index and status offenses

Index offenses are criminal acts that are treated as such, whencommitted by juveniles or adults. The offenders are subjected to thesame criminal justice system their age notwithstanding. Such offensesusually require the presence of a psychiatrist to ascertain theirmental status. An example of an index offense is murder.

Status offenses on the other hand are less serious. They are onlycommittable by persons who are below the legal age. When a person oflegal age engages in the same, it is not considered an offense. Theyinclude truancy, underage drinking, promiscuity, and running away.

4.Antecedents of juvenile delinquency

Juveniles usually use delinquency to set an identity. This case iscommon among juveniles who do not receive enough attention from theirfamily and teachers. Some engage in delinquency as a means of gettingnoticed.

Keeping delinquent peers is another antecedent of juveniledelinquency. The juveniles will engage in similar delinquencies inorder to fit in with their peers.

Peer pressure can emanate from all quarters including siblings.Research has shown that siblings play a major role in juveniledelinquency.

5.Psychological profile of a typical suicidal adolescent

Depression is a major indicator in suicidal adolescents. Theyexperience stress for a minimum of two weeks and they are unable toengage in daily activities as they used to before. Depression inadolescents is usually a result of family factors such as ineptparents, conflict with parents, and exposure to maternal depression.Antidepressants have proven to be effective in dealing withdepression among teenagers.

Less contact with close friends is another indicator. In most cases,a suicidal adolescent will not have any close friend(s) left.

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1. Research findings on the roles of family management practicesand parental involvement in adolescent achievement.

The expectations of parents may influence the adolescent’s pursuitof better grades in school. When parents place high expectations onthe shoulders of adolescents, they are likely to work harder in orderto avoid disappointing their parents and consequently missing theirapproval. However, some parents may set lower expectations for theirteenagers as a way of protecting their self-esteem. Research hasshown that such teenagers usually end up performing below theirstandards.

Parents that are more involved in the lives of their teenagersusually have a positive impact on their achievements. Teenagersusually need someone to look up to and a person to advise them on thestruggles of life. Parental involvement is especially important whenteenagers are choosing their careers. Many teenagers dream to pursuea good career but then they lack someone to mentor. Parents who aremore involved in the lives of their teenagers will mentor them tomake better career choices. However, research has also shown thatsome adolescents have chosen the wrong career path due to theinvolvement of their parents. It is upon the parent to know when theyare over-involved in the lives of their teenage children.

2.Some of the barriers to learning faced by adolescents from low-incomebackgrounds

Adolescents from low-income backgrounds have to work at the expenseof putting more effort in their studies. Some work for as many as 20hours in a week. These adolescents have little time for extrastudying, doing homework, and consulting with their peers. With thetough economic times, some adolescents may have to work longer hours,a move that will further impair their learning ability.

Adolescents from low-income backgrounds usually have very few peoplein their life to look up to. Most of the parents in thissocio-economic bracket did not perform well in their education andthey rarely view education as something of major importance. Theseparents end up not placing any academic expectations on theirchildren.

When adolescents from low-income backgrounds work for theirallowance, thy end up spending more time with their peers than withtheir parents. Peer influence with minimal parental guidance drivesthem to experiment on drugs and engage in various delinquencies. Thedeveloping antisocial behavior is usually a barrier to learning.

3.Ways of improving relationships among ethnically diverse students

Teachers should acknowledge that children from different ethnicgroups have different cultural practices and values. Leading theother students in respecting the cultures of those that come fromdifferent ethnicities will go a long way in improving relationshipsamong ethnically diverse students.

Schools should mark ethnic events such as the Martin Luther Day forthe African Americans and Tacos for the Hispanics. This move driveout intercultural ignorance and help students to appreciate thecultures of others.

Organizing ethnically diverse group assignments will foster goodrelationships between students of different cultures. Teachers shoulddiscourage student groups that comprise of members from oneethnicity, especially those that fall under the ethnic minorities.

School administrations should prohibit students from bullying othersbased on their ethnicity. Those found to be culpable of the offenceshould face harsh consequences. The law should apply within theschool premises and away from the school setting.

4.Compare and contrast between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

Intrinsicmotivation emanates from internal factors such as challenge, effort,curiosity, and self-determination. The student does not need theinput of his teachers or parents in order to work hard in hiseducation. On the other hand, extrinsic motivation comes fromexternal factors such as a reward for good performance, andpunishment for misdemeanor. In the absence of the aforementionedexternal factors, the student will perform poorly in their education.Psychologists stress the importance if intrinsic motivation overextrinsic motivation. It is for this reason that teachers are advisedto create a classroom environment that encourages intrinsicmotivation.

Althoughthe two types of motivation vary on their source, they are bothimportant for learning among adolescents. Prospects for a better jobfor upward mobility are among the important extrinsic motivationfactors for learning among adolescents. Extrinsic motivation is whatleads to the buildup of intrinsic motivation. Without the externalfactors, most teenagers would not condition themselves to beself-determined, and curious to gain more knowledge in school.

5.Avoiding and overcoming Procrastination

A time schedule is necessary to avoid procrastination. An adolescentshould draw a time schedule for school activities and leisure time.Quite often, leisure activities are the reason behind theprocrastination of school activities. However, it will requirediscipline to follow the schedule. Any school activity that is notcompleted within the stipulated time should eat into leisure time andnot postponed to the next day. Such high levels of discipline willrequire long periods of dedication and training. Teachers and parentsshould ensure that adolescents learn to follow the schedule.

Setting penalties for oneself is a good way to preventprocrastination. For instance, if the adolescent fails to do a schoolassignment because he was watching TV, doing the assignment shouldeat into his sleeping time. For instance, if he is used to sleepingat 11PM, he should work on the assignment until 2AM. That way, theadolescent will learn that every decision has consequences. However,achieving such levels of self-discipline will need the guidance andmonitoring of teachers and parents.