1.Problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping.
Problem-focused coping involves devising ways in order to solve aparticular problem that is causing stress in an adolescent. Forinstance if the adolescent is ridiculed by his peers for a uniquehaircut, he may opt to change the hairstyle or report the matter tothe teachers. This type of coping is usually applicable to problemswith a feasible solution, considering the amount of resources that anadolescent can lay his hands on.
Emotion-focused coping involves countering stress by adjusting one’semotions in order to view the issue from a different perspective. Oneway of coping with stress, is through changing the attitude towardsthe stressor. For instance, an adolescent will decide to see the hardconcepts in class as a motivator to work hard rather than somethingthat causes stress. This kind of stress coping is especiallyimportant in stressors that an adolescent cannot change. They includefactors such as death of a close relative, divorce of parents, anddumping by a girlfriend or a boyfriend. In such a situation, it isbetter to change one’s emotions because the problems cannot bereversed.
The two stress-coping mechanisms usually function hand in hand whensolving problems. It rarely happens that an adolescent will use onecoping mechanism when solving a particular stressor. As psychologistssay, the two coping mechanisms are better off than avoidance coping.The latter involves doing nothing and wishing the problems away. Bothstrategies are also important in creating resilience in the teenager.
2.Current Trends in Alcohol abuse among Adolescents and young adults.
The 1970’s marked the peak of alcohol abuse among teenagers. Astudy conducted on 46,000 adolescents between 1990 and the early 21stCentury, revealed that alcohol abuse by adolescents had taken adownward trend. The study also revealed that adolescent boys are morelikely to indulge in binge drinking than their female counterparts.The report also noted that the transition from high school to collegecreated more instances of alcohol abuse among young adults. Thestress of coping with the new environment and the perceived freedomare the primary contributing factors to alcohol abuse by young adultsin college. Pregaming- the act of consuming hard liquor before goingout to the club- is also a trend among many college students. Themain idea behind pregaming is to ensure that the adolescents do notspend more on alcohol while in the club because by the time theyarrive there, they would already be tipsy.
Binge drinking is proving to be a problem according to recentstudies. In a study conducted in 140 campuses, 30% of the studentsreported to have finished five drinks in the past one week. That muchalcohol in such a short interval is what amounts to binge drinkingaccording to the researchers. The practice is becoming popular amongmany college entrants, especially females.
Consequences of drinking among adolescents and young adults areimmense. Among the recurring problems, are engaging in risky sexualbehavior such as casual sex and sex orgies. Young female adults areincreasingly indulging in binge drinking and engaging in unprotectedsex with multiple partners. The female binge drinkers are marked as‘high risk’ because most of them engage in the risky behaviorwhen they are not under contraceptives. Other consequences of bingedrinking include fallback in studies, health problems, and issueswith personal hygiene.
3.Difference between index and status offenses
Index offenses are criminal acts that are treated as such, whencommitted by juveniles or adults. The offenders are subjected to thesame criminal justice system their age notwithstanding. Such offensesusually require the presence of a psychiatrist to ascertain theirmental status. An example of an index offense is murder.
Status offenses on the other hand are less serious. They are onlycommittable by persons who are below the legal age. When a person oflegal age engages in the same, it is not considered an offense. Theyinclude truancy, underage drinking, promiscuity, and running away.
4.Antecedents of juvenile delinquency
Juveniles usually use delinquency to set an identity. This case iscommon among juveniles who do not receive enough attention from theirfamily and teachers. Some engage in delinquency as a means of gettingnoticed.
Keeping delinquent peers is another antecedent of juveniledelinquency. The juveniles will engage in similar delinquencies inorder to fit in with their peers.
Peer pressure can emanate from all quarters including siblings.Research has shown that siblings play a major role in juveniledelinquency.
5.Psychological profile of a typical suicidal adolescent
Depression is a major indicator in suicidal adolescents. Theyexperience stress for a minimum of two weeks and they are unable toengage in daily activities as they used to before. Depression inadolescents is usually a result of family factors such as ineptparents, conflict with parents, and exposure to maternal depression.Antidepressants have proven to be effective in dealing withdepression among teenagers.
Less contact with close friends is another indicator. In most cases,a suicidal adolescent will not have any close friend(s) left.