Osteoporosis

OSTEOPOROSIS 7

Summary

is a disease that results in weak bones and fracture. It occurs ifthe rate of bone resorption is higher than the rate of bone formationin the body. Health experts assert that mineral, bone matrix, and theporosity of the cortical bone are important considerations whenassessing the bone strength. Advancement in research on the disease,bone structure, and formation has been instrumental in the creationof better drugs to diagnose the condition. Medical practitionersassert that the condition is preventable, especially at tender ages,through the adoption of a healthy lifestyle. Research on the bonestructure and formation have given rise to more knowledge about thegenesis of osteoporosis. The experience has offered new strategiestowards the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the condition.

Studiesindicate that it is difficult to identify the bone strength directlyor even recognize changes in its micro-architecture. Radiography andabsorptiometry have been identified as suitable approaches to help inmeasuring the bone mass, density, and shape. The values garnered areuseful to ascertain the risk levels. can occur in thebody due to various reasons such as old age, menopause, and poorlifestyle. The listed reasons have the potential to increase to risklevels hence, make the bones fragile. can affect peopleacross ages although research studies indicate that the aged andwomen are at higher risk. Suboptimal nutrition and genes can resultin weak bones among the young people. Researchers assert that anyinterference in the metabolic process has several predicaments in thebody growth and bone development. It is advisable that people takeprecautionary measures to mitigate against the occurrence of thedisease.

refers to a health condition that makes bones weak and fragile. Ittypically occurs when the rate of new bones creation is lower thanthe removal rate of old bones. People across ages and socialcharacteristics can get the condition although women past menopauseare the most vulnerable to the condition. The common symptoms of thedisease include back pain, bone fracture, and stooped posture. As oneadvances in age, the rate of bone loss is higher than its creation.The condition is preventable by taking appropriate measures such asregular screening, healthy diets, and exercises. It is notable thatother health conditions such as alcoholism and anorexia can causeosteoporosis. Health experts advise people to adopt healthy eatingand lifestyles to prevent incidences of bone loss.

Discussion

Previously,many people thought that osteoporosis occurred due to old age,menopause, and lack of enough calcium in the diet. Research predictsthat about 50 percent of Americans over the age of 50 years willdevelop the condition by 2020. Advancement in research has led to abetter understanding of the disease hence giving rise to new andbetter forms of treatment and prevention (Marcus, 2010). Over time,research has led to the development of new drugs, prevention, anddetection techniques. Abaloparatide is used to lower fracture riskson the bones. The same drug is also helpful for postmenopausal womenwith osteoporosis. Additionally, researchers have developed growthhormones to reduce the possibility of osteoporosis fractures amongthe older women.

Recently,researchers at Washington University revealed a stimulator that couldhelp promote the growth of new bones. The scientists found out thatWNT protein has the potential to stimulate bone formation. Thefindings also indicate the protein does not have any impact thebone-degrading osteoclasts but increase the bone-building osteoblastcells by fuelling the mTOR pathway. The results and claims by thescientists open a new twist since the previous development inmTOR-related drugs sought for the usage of medicines that restrainthe pathway to reducing cancer cells. The drugs are also useful tosuppress the immune response when the patients are undergoing organtransplants. Apparently, patients undergoing such medical procedureshave bone problems. High dosage of immunosuppressors has thepotential to catalyze bone problems. The issue on whether drugs thatinhibit mTOR disrupt the process formation is still in contention.Further research is necessary to examine the mechanism used by WNTproteins to communicate to mTOR and fuel bone formation (Marcus,2010).

Resorptionis a process through which bones are broken down, especially intrabecular bone. The process helps in enhancing the supply of calciumand phosphorous when the demand is high in the body during pregnancyor if it is deficient in the diet. The body has a system that allowsfor storage of the two minerals when they are excess. Bone formationreduces with age hence failing to match the resorption rate. Theimbalance between bone formation and resorption causes a loss in bonemass. The resultant structural abnormalities make the skeleton weakand susceptible fractures (Slon &amp Harvard Medical School, 2010).

Asexperts reveal, flexibility curbs the effect of abnormal growth inchildren in cases whereby the bone length temporarily outreach musclelength. People with Phenylketonuria (PKU) have been noted toexperience osteoporosis, a condition that is a degenerative bonedisease that results in reduced bone mass in the body (Demirdas,Coakley, Bisschop, Hollak, Bosch, &amp Singh, 2015). People with thedisease appear to have a higher risk of low bone density andfracture. The cause of the increased danger of osteoporosis ismultifactorial and includes factors such as hyperprolactinemia andantipsychotic medication. Protein plays a significant role inmaintaining the balance of calcium in the body. Further, calcium isessential for the building of well-built bones, supporting theirsentiments, and boosting the bone density thus acts a measure toprevent osteoporosis. Most of the food products that contain calciumhave protein elements, thus require proper nutritional management andadvice from a professional. Poor dietary adherence has massivecomplications on an individual such as headaches, osteoporosis, andspastic quadriparesis.

DEXAscan is a method used in diagnosing the condition. The approach seeksto measure the bone density in body parts such as spine and hip thatare familiar with fractures (Yang, Palermo, Black, &amp Eastell,2014). However, the method has limitations since people with regularmeasurements can experience bone fractures. It is notable that themicrostructure of bones differs across individuals. Currently,researchers are studying new imaging techniques that will enablepractitioners to examine the structural characteristics of the insidebone parts. The move would help in generating models of bone strengthto predict the likelihood of bone fractures on an individual.Computed tomography (CT) scanning method has demonstrated the abilityto serve the purpose.

Conclusion

Notableprogress in enhancing our understanding of cellular biology andgenetics of skeletal tissues has offered an opportunity for theresearchers to identify appropriate medication for osteoporosis. Suchknowledge would be instrumental in the development of drugs thatcatalyze bone formation. The resultant drug should have minimaleffects on the body, especially, to processes such as immune system.Bone formation in the body is a complex process. A regulator wouldhelp ascertain whether the body has enough energy and materials toproduce new bones. We need to engage in more research to aid in thedevelopment of better medicine to treat osteoporosis.

References

Demirdas,S., Coakley, K., Bisschop, P., Hollak, C., Bosch, A., &amp Singh,R., (2015). Bone health in phenylketonuria: a systematic review andmeta-analysis. Orphanetjournal of rare diseases,10(1),1.

Marcus,R. (2010). Fundamentalsof osteoporosis.Burlington, Mass: Academic Press.

Slon,S., &amp Harvard Medical School. (2010). :A guide to prevention and treatment.Boston, MA: Harvard Health Publications.

Yang,L., Palermo, L., Black, D., &amp Eastell, R. (2014). Prediction ofincident hip fracture with the estimated femoral strength by finiteelement analysis of DXA scans in the study of osteoporotic fractures.Journalof Bone and Mineral Research,29(12),2594-2600.