Oral Cancer

OralCancer

OralCancer

Oralcancer is the growth of cells in an uncontrollable way in the mouthand surrounding tissue that does not fade. Oral cancer includescancer of tongue, cheeks, mouth floor, hard and soft palate, pharynx,lips and sinuses (Oral cancer Foundation, 2016).

Prevalence

Approximately48, 250 Americans are diagnosed with oral and pharyngeal cancerannually. Oral cancer causes more than 9,575 deaths and kills onepatient in an hour, while those diagnosed with the disease only halfof them live past five years. The main cause for the high rates isthe absence of comprehensive programs to screen and the advent ofHPV16 virus that causes oral cancer (Oral cancer Foundation, 2016).

Symptoms

Oralcancer symptoms include rough spots, crust, thickenings, andswellings, eroded areas on the gums, lips and inside the mouth. Themouth develops patches that are velvety, speckled, red, and white.The mouth experiences bleeding that is unexplained, loses feeling,gets tenderness in the neck, mouth and face, and numbness. Thevictims feel as if something is trapped at the back of the throat.Moreover, they experience difficulties in swallowing, chewing, movingthe jaw and tongue. The voice gets hoarse with chronic sore throat.In addition, there is excess loss of weight, changes in the fittingof gestures, and pain in the ear (National cancer institute, 2014).

Riskfactors

Oralcancer is common among smokers of cigarette, pipe, tobacco users,alcoholics, and persons with human papillomavirus (HPV). It is alsofound among those with family histories of cancer (Mayo clinic,2015).

Diagnoses

Dentistsscreen for oral cancer by feeling any lumps, neck changes, irregulartissue, oral cavity, discolored tissue, and sores. Dentists performoral cancer biopsy after identifying a suspicious tissue. Scalpelbiopsy is recommended if some tissue appear more suspicious.

Treatmentof oral cancer

Surgeryis used to treat oral cancer by removing cancerous growth. Radiationtherapy and chemotherapy destroy cancer cells (Mayo clinic, 2015).

Preventionof oral cancer

Thecondition is prevented through avoiding smoking and use of tobaccoproducts as well as drinking moderate quantities of alcohol. Peopleeating proper diet are at lower risks of getting oral cancer.Limiting exposure to the sun reduces chances of having lip cancer(Mayo clinic, 2015).

Glossary

Abscess/Absceso:An infection in the tooth, bone or soft tissue.

Abutment/Contrafuerte:tooth on the side of a missing tooth supporting a fixed tooth.

Acrylicresin/Resinaacrilica:plastic commonly used in dentistry.

Airabrasion/Abrasión por aire:is a technique that avoids drilling tooth and one that blasts thesurface of the tooth with abrasion and air. It removes tooth decay,discolorations, and superficial stains.

Alveolarbone/Huesoalveolar:the bone that surrounds the tooth and anchors it in place. The lossof this bone signifies periodontal disease.

Amalgam/Amalgama:a common filling material that repairs cavities. It is also known assilver fillings and contains mercury combined with copper, tin, andsilver.

Anaerobicbacteria/Lasbacterias anaerobias:bacteria that do not require oxygen to grow and associated withperiodontal disease.

Analgesia/Analgesia:a pain relief agent.

Anesthesia/Anestesia:medication that results in complete elimination of pain sensation andnumbs the teeth.

Benign/Benigno:tumor that does not invade surrounding tissue.

Biopsy/Biopsia:removalof a tissue sample for examination.

Cancer/Cáncer:abnormalgrowth of cells that proliferate in an uncontrollable way.

Carcinoma/Carcinoma:cancerthat originates in the skin and cover body organs.

Cell/Celda:thebasic functional unit of living thing.

Chemotherapy/Quimioterapia:chemicalthat binds to.

Chronic/Crónico:conditionlasting for a long time.

Drysocket/Alveolitis:A complication occurring in the socket of the extracted tooth andforming a blood clot.

Edentulous/Desdentado:having no teeth.

Enamel/Esmalte:the mineralized hard part of the tooth on the outside portion and onelying above the line of the gum.

Endodontic/endodoncia:a dentistry field dealing with the biology and pathology of thedental pulp and root tissues of the tooth.

Endodontic/Endodoncia:a dental specialist specializing with diagnosis, prevention,treatment, and causes of the tooth problems.

Epidermal/Epidérmico:outermostlayer of the skin.

Erthroplakia/Erthroplakia:anabnormal reddened patch with a velvety surface found in the mouth.

Eruption/Erupción:emergence of a tooth from its jaw position.

Esophagus/Esófago:tubeconnecting the pharynx with the stomach.

Extraction/Extracción:removal of tooth.

Filling/Relleno:theprocess of restoring the lost structure of the tooth with porcelain,resin materials, and metal.

Flossing/Elhilo dental:The act of putting a thread likes material in between contact areasof teeth to clean them.

Leukoplakia/Laleucoplasia:A white spot or patch found in the mucous membrane in the mouth.

Oralcancer/Elcáncer oral:malignantneoplasm in the mouth or lip occurring common at the age of 60. Itoccurs eight times higher in men than women.

References

MayoClinic. (2015). Mouthcancer.Retrieved fromhttp://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/mouth-cancer/home/ovc-20157214

NationalCancer Institute. (2014). Oralcancer.Retrieved from https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/oralcancer.html

OralCancer Foundation. (2016). Oralcancer facts.Retrieved from http://www.oralcancerfoundation.org/facts/