Juvenile Delinquency

JuvenileDelinquency

JuvenileDelinquency

Everycountry has a minimum age limit at which an individual is persecutedfor crimes committed. Nearly all countries consider 18 years as theminimum age at which normal criminal persecution is possible.However, this does not imply that individuals below such minimum agelimit, also known as juveniles or minors, can take part in illegalbehaviours without being punished (Brezina &amp Agnew, 2015). Onthat note, juvenile delinquency refers to a situation where ajuvenile participates in illegal behaviors or activities that wouldotherwise be punished as a crime if they were within the statutoryage of the majority. Juvenile delinquency varies depending on theseverity of the criminal offence that has been committed. This paperwill examine various treatment strategies that can be used toeffectively correct delinquent juvenile to prevent re-offense. Theunderlying objective of the study is to establish the most effectivemethod of dealing with juvenile delinquency.

LiteratureReview

Juveniledelinquency is an ongoing national problem which has baffledpolicymakers, treatment specialists, social workers and the generalpublic over the years. Public concern over cases of childrencommitting violent crimes has escalated over the recent years.Questions regarding youth reform policies along the corridors ofjustice still continue to puzzle stakeholders. Juvenile delinquencyis a national problem and as such, it requires strategic measuresthat would help in preventing re-offense. Pringle et al (2002)highlight that some of the strategies that can be employed torehabilitate delinquent juvenile includes Wrap-Around Care, BootCamps and Victim-offender reconciliation.

Useof Wrap-Around Care as a tool or a strategy of treating delinquentjuveniles or minors with behaviours disorder has received scholarlyattention over the last few decades. Pannebakker, Fleuren and Kocken(2015) explain that there two forms of wrap-around programs that canbe used as intervention measures. They include evidence-basedwrap-around and community-based wrap-around programs. To start with,wraparound services were developed in the mid-1980s as a strategy ofcontrolling minors with serious behavioral and emotional problems intheir communities or homes (Futterman, 2015). On that note, it isimportant to note that behavioral and emotional problems are some ofthe factors that compel juveniles to take part in criminalactivities. In that effect, aggression is one of theindividual-specific factors that are associated with individualjuvenile delinquency especially for the children under the age of 13. Other factors that have been linked with juvenile delinquencyinclude low verbal IQ, poor academic performance or low schoolpreference. In addition, children with poor language problems such asthose with delayed language development are also linked to delinquentbehaviours. As a result, it is important to investigate the efficacyof wrap-around one of the strategies of dealing with juveniledelinquency.

Evidence-Basewrap around tool is one of the tools that can be employed tofacilitate rehabilitation of delinquent children with behavior andemotional problems. The Community-Base wraparound, in the same way,entails collaboration with the delinquent youth, the youth’s familyand the family friend to provide to provide a long lasting solutionto the problem of juvenile delinquency (Walker &amp Gresham, 2013).In this way, it is possible to enhance improvement of self-esteem ofdelinquent juveniles, thus influencing the attitude of offenders. Forexample, by bringing all the concerned parties together, it ispossible to find a solution that will end delinquency in children.

Mediationprovides an important tool that can be applied when dealing withjuvenile delinquency. Siegel and Welsh (2014) observes that mediationis one of the ways of developing an acceptable settlement between thevictim and the offender. When enhancing a victim-offenderreconciliation, the mediator should be someone whose has not takenpart in the offence. In the same way, such a person should not be aclose relative of either the victim or the offender although it isimportant that they are present at the time of mediation. Mediationcan be conducted in various settings such as within the neighborhoodor in schools. However, the most effective environment for conductingVictim-Offender mediation is in court settings. According to Staines(2013), a court setting is the most utilized environment of mediationbetween victims and offenders within the corridors of juvenilejustice system. Using court settings for mediation is effective,especially for juvenile delinquents who have committed non-violentcriminal activities such as theft, burglary, and vandalism.

Bootcamps is another way of treating juvenile offenders. Boot camps alsoreferred to as incarceration, are not only effective for punishingjuvenile offenders, but are also an efficient way of rehabilitation.As Kim, Merlo and Benekos (2013) explain, boot camps are widelyperceived as the most effective method of treating delinquentjuveniles since they provide structures needed to facilitatecorrection and education of juvenile offenders. The boot camp systemsare also perceived as effective methods of treating juveniledelinquents because they take a tough stance on crime. They are oftenestablished in the same way as military camps. However, thedifference between the effectiveness of boot camps and traditionalincarceration is still unknown.

ResearchQuestion

Whatis the best method of treating juvenile delinquency to preventre-offence?

Objectivesof the study

1.To discover factors such as lack of love and attention can resultin juvenile delinquency

2.To find out the best method of dealing with juvenile delinquency

3.To discover the factors that hinder quick recovery from juveniledelinquency

4.To understand the role of parenting styles delinquents juvenilesto deal with aggression.

ResearchModel

Thestudy will employ qualitative research design. In this case, thechoice of research design has been made based on a number of factors.For this reason, qualitative research will be the most effectiveresearch design because it helps the researcher to study variousphenomena in their natural setting (Taylor, Bogdan &amp DeVault2015). In this way, qualitative study design will help the researcherto interpret the concepts of the study especially with regard to themeaning that is attached to them. For instance, the paper willevaluate the meaning that is attached to the various method oftreating delinquent juveniles. In addition, the study will bedesigned to expound on the setting and contextual factors as they areassociated with juvenile delinquency. Furthermore, qualitativeresearch has been chosen because it will enable the researcher todetermine the manner in which sampled population will interpretconstructs such as intelligent quotient (IQ) or self-esteem. However,the study design also has some pitfalls worth considering. Forexample, it will be impossible for the researcher to test theoriesand hypotheses with a large study population. Chances of biases arelikely to increase which may, in turn, lower the credibility of thestudy.

Variablesof the Study and Their Attributes

Thestudy variable refers to research entities with qualities orquantities that vary. They are values or entities that can take onother values. Table 1 below indicates a summary of some of theresearch variables that will be encountered during the study. ColumnA is the variables of the study while column B are their attributes.The attributes in column B are either the causes or inherent sectionsof the respective research variable listed in column A.

  1. Research Variable

  1. Their Attributes

Self-esteem

  • Hypersensitivity

  • Irritability

  • Hostility

  • Negative perception about life

School failure

  • Poor performance

  • High levels of poverty

  • Truancy

Behavioral and emotional disorders

  • Aggressiveness

  • Culturally or socially unacceptable behaviors

  • Oppositional deviant disorder (ODO)

  • Anxiety

  • Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)

Love and care

  • Poor parenting

  • Rejection

Activity

Duration

From

To

Seeking permission from relevant authorities

July 1, 2016

July 2, 2016

Preparation of questionnaires

July 3, 2016

August 5, 2016

Sampling

August 8, 2016

September 10, 2016

Data collection

September 15, 2016

October 20, 2016

Data analysis

October 23, 2016

November 7, 2016

Presentation

November 10, 2016

Table1. Variables of the Study and Their Attributes

Howto Measure the Variables

Theresearch variables will be measured through the study of the sampledpopulation. In this case, the participants will consist of delinquentjuveniles, treatment specialists and members of the general public.In this composition, the researcher will be able to gather data fromparents, offenders, social workers and treatment specialists who aredealing with delinquent juveniles at correctional and rehabilitationfacilities that will be identified during the study. The study isscheduled to include 50 participants. Seventy percent of the sampledpopulation will be male while thirty percent will be female. Thesampled population will consist of 5 treatment specialists from threedifferent correctional and rehabilitation centers, five socialworkers 25 delinquent juveniles from three different correctional andrehabilitation facilities. The researcher will seek the consent ofthe study population before embarking on the study.

DataCollection

Thestudy will use interviews as questionnaires collection method.Well-structured questions will be administered to the participants.The questionnaires will be used in the study because they enable theease of concealing the identity of the participants. In addition,questionnaires can be used to collect data from a large sampledpopulation at relatively low costs (Monyarit et al, 2014). Inaddition, the paper will also employ interviews to collect data. Inthis case, the researchers will interview some of the sampledpopulation to examine their opinion of the research question.Furthermore, the research will employ observation to determinedeviant behaviours in delinquent juveniles.

DataAnalysis

Thestudy will employ content examination as a method of data analysis.In this case, the paper will use an inductive approach to analysingthe collected data. To explain it further, the emergent frameworkswill be used to put the data into groups and compare thesimilarities.

Scheduleof the Project

Table2 provides an analysis of the schedule of the project. It shows theactivities of each face of the study and the length of time whichwill be required to complete the research. The research is scheduledto be conducted in 5 months.

Activity

Duration

From

To

Seeking permission from relevant authorities

July 1, 2016

July 2, 2016

Preparation of questionnaires

July 3, 2016

August 5, 2016

Sampling

August 8, 2016

September 10, 2016

Data collection

September 15, 2016

October 20, 2016

Data analysis

October 23, 2016

November 7, 2016

Presentation

November 10, 2016

Estimatedcost of the Study

Table3 indicates the budget requirement of the study. It includes thebudget item at the requirement for that particular budget.

Budget Item

Budget Requirement

Seeking permission from relevant authorities

$50

Preparation of questionnaires

$200

Data collection

$500

Data analysis

$150

Presentation

$50

Total estimated cost

$950

References

Brezina,T., &amp Agnew, R. (2015). .&nbspTheHandbook of Deviance,313.

Futterman,D. (2015, November). Bending the curve: Ending the AIDS epidemic inNew York and implications for the United States. In&nbsp143rdAPHA Annual Meeting and Exposition (October 31-November 4, 2015).APHA.

Kim,B., Merlo, A. V., &amp Benekos, P. J. (2013). Effective correctionalintervention programmes for juveniles: review and synthesis ofmeta-analytic evidence.&nbspInt`lJ. Police Sci. &amp Mgmt.,&nbsp15,169.

Monyarit,S., Pan-ngum, W., Lawpoolsri, S., Yimsamran, S., Pongnumkul, S.,Kaewkungwal, J., &amp Singhasivanon, P. (2014). Advantages of usingvoiced questionnaire and image capture application for datacollection from a minority group in rural areas along theThailand–Myanmar border.&nbspJournalof Innovation in Health Informatics,&nbsp21(4),179-188.

Pannebakker,N., Fleuren, M., &amp Kocken, P. (2015). Determinants of adherenceto the Wrap around care approach in child and family services.TheEuropean Journal of Public Health,&nbsp25(suppl3), ckv171-047.

Pringle,J. L., Edmondston, L. A., Holland, C. L., Kirisci, L., Emptage, N.P., Balavage, V. K., … &amp Herrell, J. M. (2002). The role ofwrap around services in retention and outcome in substance abusetreatment: Findings from the Wrap Around Services ImpactStudy.&nbspAddictiveDisorders &amp Their Treatment,1(4),109-118.

Siegel,L., &amp Welsh, B. (2014).&nbspJuveniledelinquency: Theory, practice, and law.Cengage Learning.

Staines,J. (2013). The implementation of restorative approaches in a securechild care centre.&nbspRestorativeJustice,&nbsp1(3),362-388.

Taylor,S. J., Bogdan, R., &amp DeVault, M. (2015).&nbspIntroductionto qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource.John Wiley &amp Sons

Walker,H. M., &amp Gresham, F. M. (2013).&nbspHandbookof evidence-based practices for emotional and behavioral disorders:Applications in schools.Guilford Publications.