Instructor`s name



Organtransplant is the transfer of a body part from one person to another,typically from a donor to a recipient. Autografts are organs ortissues that are transplanted into the same patient’s body. On theother hand, allografts involve transplantation between twoindividuals. They can be from a cadaveric or living source. The mostcommonly transplantable organs include the kidneys, thymus,intestine, lungs, liver, pancreas, and heart. The tissues includetendons, heart valves, veins, nerves, cornea, and skin.Transplantation medicine is amongst the most complex field currently.Several dilemmas emanate from the organ transplant. One of the coredifficulties involves the sale. In other words, is it right to sellan organ? The moral implications drawn from the selling of organs arequite vast. In this paper, the different aspects of organ sale willbe elaborated. Though some countries ban the practice, people resortto black markets. In that regard, the paper will look to outline someof the issues related to organ sale.

Transplanttourism is the act of purchasing and selling of organs as well as theelements associated with its commercialization. It is a creeping normacross the globe. Though it is deemed as a cheaper mode of attainingorgans, research has shown that its demerits are also quite vast.They are prone to poor care, post-transplant infections among othernorms. In this practice, people move from one country to another toget the organs. Though a legalized system would benefit most patientscrossing the borders to get organs, it does not guarantee safety. Inmost cases, the patient may suffer from post-transplant infections.It is, therefore, illogical to sell an organ yet it does not servethe anticipated purpose (Brenda Paul).

Viewingthe body as a commodity is another ethical challenge posed by organsale. In other words, if a donor sells his/her body part with thesole purpose of making money, it becomes ethically wrong. The bodyparts should not be utilized as a source of generating income. Theyare sacred and should not be misused. Donation of organs should hencebe done with the purpose of helping someone in need and not as ameans of getting money (Brenda Paul). Financial constraint is onecause of organ sales. Some individuals or families are deeply rootedin poverty and think that selling their bodies is the only way ofcoming out of it. In such a case, the person tends to view his/herbody as a commodity. However, this does not befit ethicalperspectives of the body. Additionally, an organ selling structurecould form an economic relation between a purchaser and buyer insteadof a charitable one. Such cases result in quality issues. The systemwould also be detrimental to the volunteer donor scheme, snapping thehuman bond that brings people together.

Asa commodity, organs fluctuate in prices. In fact, countries such asIran tend to restrict organ transplant by regulating prices. Theorgan demand to supply ratio shows a wide disparity i.e. the supplydoes not meet the demand. In such cases, the prices tend to rise. Thelimited supply has also led to an increase in black market organtrafficking. Apart from people killing innocent individuals, theyremove their organs and sell them to get cash. It is morally wrong.In addition to that, the probability of gaining profit from bodies ofthe dead provides an incentive for murder. Viewing the body as acommodity would result in a general cheapening and stiffening ofhuman relations. People would be drawn more to the commercial aspectsof the body rather than the humane practices. Murder cases would risewith such mentalities (Greasley).

Creatingan organ sale market does not guarantee an increase in the supply oftransplantable body parts. Such a market may lead to a decline in therates of donations. In other words, volunteers may opt not to donatethe organs. Most people would not want to donate their body parts ifthey could sell them. In addition to that, poverty strickenindividuals would have more pressure to sell their body parts thanthe wealthy people. Depending on the environment, sellers may leavethemselves in harm. An individual who sells the organ for monetarygain may not consider his/her health. Characteristically, a patientneeding an organ is placed on a waiting list. He/she has to waituntil an organ is made available. It has a propensity of benefitingthe wealthy more than the poor who may opt to sacrifice their health.Apart from that, the whole process would bring about brokeractivities. In that regard, the seller may not get the actual worthof his/her organ. Most of them would lose quite a substantial amountof their compensation (Greasley).

Culturaland religious beliefs are also essential in making organ transplantdecisions. Organ transplant should be a personal choice and notenforced by law or circumstances. In some cultures, a person must beburied with all his/her body parts. However, other countries conductunethical practices like removing the body parts from an executedprisoner. In some instances, on the eve of the execution, theprisoner’s organs are removed. Such practices should not becondoned. Additionally, the inmate’s body parts may even be harmfulto the recipient.


Anorgan sale market is an unethical practice. The aspects involved makeit quite hard to establish genuine body parts from illegal ones. Asillustrated above, the activity would increase illegal activitiespertaining organ transplant. A good example can be drawn from thearrest of the director of Willed Body Program at the University ofCalifornia. The director was arrested in 2004 after selling the bodyparts of some individuals who had donated them for research beforethey died. Instead of placing them in the science for researchdocket, the director opted to receive over $1 million for the organson the black market. Such activities are quite vast across the globe.

Blackmarkets have also led to an increased level of inhumane behaviors.People commit murder to satisfy the human greed for cash. Therefore,people would be endangered by the legalization of this practice.Organ trafficking has been on the rise and is propelled by theincreased demands. Due to this, the quality of body parts is a bigissue. As opposed to donations, organ sellers might be pressured bycircumstances rather than the willingness to give out their bodyparts. The practice may also drive away donors. Volunteering is ameans of strengthening bonds as well as showing the human aspects oflife. However, selling the organs eliminates this sense. The bodymust be viewed as sacred and not just a commodity. It is quitedemeaning to consider our bodies as commodities that can earn anincome. Therefore, there should be more calls for donations ratherthan legalizing the sale of organs. A donor should be doing so withthe sole purpose of helping out and not gaining substantial income.


Brenda Paul, Maryam Valapour, Dianne Bartels, and Jeffrey Kahn. &quotEthics of Organ Transplantation.&quot Ethics of Organ Transplantation (2004): 1-48. Document.

Greasley, Kate. &quotA legal market in organs: the problem of exploitation.&quot (2012): 1-7.



Inthis story, the events unfold slowly when a traveling family meets afugitive. This family comprised of the parents, three children, andtheir grandmother. Although the story begins in an innocent way, theend is characterized by a series of happenings which involve thekilling of all members of that family. Interestingly, the author doesnot explicitly elaborate in detail the whole process, but the hintsprovided are significant enough to help the reader understand what ishappening.

Forexample, when Bailey went into the woods with the boys, there was apistol shot from the woods, followed by another. Then silence. Theold lady`s head jerked around. She could hear the wind move throughthe tree tops like a long satisfied insuck of breath (O`Connor 149).The same thing happens with the other family members. However, theescaped convict who is identified as the Misfit kills thegrandmother.

Thetheme of prejudice, religion, and violence are evident in thisnarrative. These subjects are outlined and analyzed in the context ofthe proceedings from both the side of the family and that of theconvicts [ CITATION Ear95 l 1033 ].The aspect of grace is also present especially near the end as thecriminals interact with the grandmother.


Eventhough this story has several characters, the main theme is centeredon the grandmother (the old lady) who lives with her son Bailey andhis family. From the beginning, there is an uprising argument betweentwo parties. On one hand, the grandmother wants to go to Tennessee,while the other family members wanted to visit Florida. The naggingof this elderly woman is elicited when she tries to instill fear inthe family by saying, “Here this fellow that calls himself TheMisfit is loose from the Federal Pen and headed toward Florida, andyou read here what it says he did to these people. Just you read it.

Characterizationand Symbolism

Interms of characterization, the role of grandmother has been highlyexemplified to portray a personality filled with selfishness and thelonging to live in the past. Her negativity towards contemporarylifestyle pushes her to extremes which later prove to be fatal. Allthrough the story the other characters are not made to be likeable.Their lives are tarnished by behavior that is not appealing. Forinstance, the two children seem to be spoilt when they demand fortheir wishes to be upheld by their father. The presence of symbolismis evident in the story on several occasions. But the mostsignificant part are the 6 family graves seen on the way to Floridawhich implies the peril of grandmother and the family members.

Iwould not take my children in any direction with a criminal like thataloose in it. I could not answer to my conscience if I did.”(O`Connor 137). This is conveying the determination and willpowerthat she had to protect the family while at the same time achievingher desire to avoid going to Florida. It also explains hermanipulative character trying to convince even her grandchildren byintimidating them. Ironically, the same things she predicted came tohappen (O`Connor 138).

Theauthor writes the story with presumption, and the mystery is quiteintriguing. There is a close relation between what the characterstalk about and what happens later on. For instance, the authorelaborates how the grandmother was dressed as “Her collars andcuffs were white organdy trimmed with lace and at her neckline, shehad pinned a purple spray of cloth violets containing a sachet. Inthe case of an accident, anyone seeing her dead on the highway wouldknow at once that she was a lady.” (O`Connor 138). Thisdescription is what exactly transpires after the Misfit killed her bythe roadside. In addition, from reading the first few pages, onewould not expect to have a bad turnout of events but will certainlyrecall such an example when that part is reached. Similarly, there isa scenario where a family graveyard of five to six graves isdepicted. This is equivalent to the number of the family members inthe car, symbolizing their looming peril.

Prejudiceand discrimination do not miss from the author’s work as thegrandmother calls the young black child a nigger. She also says, &quotHeprobably didn’t have any,&quot the grandmother explained. &quotLittleniggers in the country do not have things like we do…” (O`Connor139). Here, the statement elucidates that black people at that timewere discriminated, they were poor and did not have the ability toown or access necessary things such as breaches. Likewise, thegrandchildren are prejudiced against those who are not affluent. Theauthor writes “No I certainly wouldn`t,&quot June Star said. &quotIwould not live in an old place like this for a minion bucks!&quot(O`Connor 139). The grandmother and the motel owner converse aboutthe olden days and portray a picture that informs the reader aboutthe peace, trust and goodness among the people. At this time, thesituation is otherwise. A close look at the text indicates thediscriminative behavior towards some people by this family, and to anextent, the author uses this methodology to make the reader perceivethat none of the household members was likeable

Religionis also one of the things that come out clearly in this book. Thegrandmother is portrayed as spiritual. However, she lies about thehouse with hidden treasure. “There was a secret panel in thishouse,&quot she said craftily, not telling the truth but wishingthat she were, &quotand the story went that all the family silverwas hidden in it when Sherman came through, but it was never found .&quotApparently, her conscience was tormenting her because she knew thatshe was not doing what was right. However, despite knowing herundoing, grandmother doesn’t turn back from her ways and say thetruth. Eventually, her clouded judgment and illusions of the pastleads the family to peril.

Itis for this reason that she led the entire family to their end. Thestory combines grace and goodness as components of religion by theway she tries to convince the Misfit that he is not an evil man. Shesays &quotJesus!&quot the old lady cried. &quotYou have got goodblood! I know you would not shoot a woman! I know you come fromnice.” (O`Connor 139). The association between being kind as tooffer the criminals clothes and sweet words analyses her need to bealive and trying to tell them to understand that their dealing waswrong. The theme of religion is further accentuated when the misfitindicates &quotI was a gospel singer for a while,&quot(O`Connor149) and later on the grandmother encourages him to pray.

Atthe start of this narrative, a hint of extreme violence andviciousness is present but utilized in a manner that the reader wouldnot easily comprehend what was to happen next. However, as the storycomes to a close, the level of cruelty exceeds any possibleexpectations. Misfit and his accomplices including the grandmothermurder the whole family in cold blood. When the mother and childrenwere led into the woods, “There was a piercing scream from thewoods, followed closely by a pistol report.”(O`Connor 151).

Lateron “There were two more pistol reports, and the grandmother raisedher head like a parched old turkey hen crying for water and called,&quotBailey Boy, Bailey Boy!&quot as if her heart would break…”(O`Connor 152). Exploring what happens, the inquiry shows the levelof brutality that these criminals had, and as if that was not all,“The Misfit sprang back as if a snake had bitten him and shot herthree times through the chest. Then he put his gun down on the groundand took off his glasses and began to clean them.” This conveys ananalysis of the character of the felons and the acceptance that theycan do such thing and still consider it fun. Their psychopathictendencies are elaborated.

Graceand Christian humanism are extended by grandmother’s reaction toconvince the Misfit not to do any harm to her and the other familymembers [ CITATION Kat90 l 1033 ].A new insight into religious mysteries and manners arebrought into play. Grandmother tells the Misfit and tries to touchhim in a way that shows love and understanding even though she knewwell what had happened to her loved ones. The author writes that shesaw the man`s face twisted close to her own as if he was going to cryand she murmured, “Why you`re one of my babies. You`re one of mychildren!&quot She reached out and touched him on the shoulder.(O`Connor 152). This is conveying an analysis of what the grandmotherwished for, and that is the redemption of the Misfit and the sparingof her life.


Areader who carefully goes through this story will not miss thesymbolism such as the clear and cloudless sky present to suggest avivid vision of grandmother’s place. Secondly, the events thathappen point directly to the grandmother as the cause of the tragedy,beginning from her wishful thinking that led to the accident.Although she claims that Florida is dangerous because of the escapedprisoners and that she would not want to expose children to such,ironically, she exposes them to danger by lying and directing them toa place where they lost their lives. The humor at the start of thenarrative and the seriousness that closes in at the end serve thepurpose of establishing flow and understanding. An analysis of thestory eventually leads us into the supposition that by using avariety of literary tools, the goal of the writing was effectivelyachieved. The readers can interact with the happenings while at thesame time appreciating the flow as well as an understanding of thecontext.


Earley, Margaret. Understanding Flannery O`Connor. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1995. Document.

Malin, Irving. &quotThe Christian Humanism of Flannery O`Connor.&quot American Literature (1873): 137-138. Document.

Ochshorn, Kathleen. &quotA Cloak of Grace: Contradictions in `A Good Man Is Hard to Find`.&quot Studies in American Fiction (1990): 113-117. Document.

O`Connor, Flannery. A Good Man is Hard to Find. 1955. Document.


Uyghur’sCulture and Visual Arts

TheUyghur are a Turkic indigenous people living in Central and EasternAsia. They are predominant in the Xinjiang Uyghur Independent Area inChina and are among the 55 officially known ethnic minorities. Around80 percent of Xinjiang`s Uyghur reside in the Tarim basin. Apart fromXinjiang, the biggest Uyghur community live in Taoyuan County. Thereare also several Uyghur communities outside China. They reside inUzbekistan, Turkey, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan. A small portion alsolive in Canada, Germany, Pakistan, the Netherlands, Sweden, SaudiArabia, Russia, Australia, the United States, Belgium, Afghanistan,and Norway. Most of them practice Islam. However, they are a mixedcultural group extending from Western Eurasia to a more diversifiedrace in East Asia. The paper will illustrate how Uygur’s visual artrepresents their identity and culture. Visual art and culture is away of focusing on phenomena that are everywhere. The idea of ‘visualculture’ recognizes the universal nature of visible marvels andsignals frankness towards both the extensiveness of images andobjects and the array of theoretic and methodological perceptionsrequired to comprehend them effectively. Representing art and culturerequires critical visual literacy. One has to attend to the specificobjects, events, and images, before developing approaches that aresensitive to the particular works. Then investigate the nature of theviews i.e. how the meanings of the works are derived. Then assess therelationships with other individuals. In that regard, this paper willevaluate all the aspects of culture entailing the Uygur community. Inaddition to that, the article will focus on the historicalbackground, name, and identity of the group [ CITATION Edw05 l 1033 ].

Theconnotation of the word Uyghur is imprecise. Modern etymologicaldescriptions have extended from &quotto trail, non-rebellious andaccommodate oneself” to &quotto wake, stir, and rouse” with noneof them being reasonable since the sound changes could not haveappeared by this time. The etymology, therefore, cannot be preciselydetermined. In addition to that, historically the sets it representedwere not ethnologically permanent since it signified a politicalrather than an ethnic identity. It was also used initially to denotejust one cluster among several, the others referring themselves asToquz Oghuz. The word Uyghur became extinct from the ancient archivesduring the 15th century. However, the Bolsheviks reinstated it tosubstitute the formerly utilized Turki or Turk. In contemporaryusage, Uyghur denotes to established Turkic urban inhabitants andfarmers of the Tarim Basin. The group follows customary Central Asiansedentary practices, as opposed to nomadic Turkic people in CentralAsia [ CITATION Ann15 l 1033 ].


Allthrough its antiquity, the word Uyghur has developed a progressivelybroad meaning. Initially, it represented only a trivial alliance ofTiele tribes in the Altai Mountains, Mongolia, and Northern China itlater designated residency in the Uyghur Khaganate. It was finallyextended into a community whose heritage originates from the collapseof the Uyghur Khaganate in the year 842. The fall instigated Uyghurmovement from Mongolia towards the Tarim Basin. The relocationintegrated and supplanted the Indo-Europeans of the area to produce aunique identity. It now represented the culture and language of theTurkic immigrants who ultimately displaced the originalIndo-Europeans. The fluid account of Uyghur and the varied ancestryof contemporary Uyghurs generate misperception about what institutesaccurate Uyghur ethnogenesis and ethnography. Modern researchersconsider current Uyghurs to be the descendants of several ofindividuals, comprising the Iranian Saka tribes, the old Uyghur ofMongolia who entered the Tarim Basin after the collapse of the UyghurKhaganate, and other Indo-European people who occupied the TarimBasin before the entrance of the Turkic Uyghur. DNA assessments showthat populates of the central Asian region like the Uyghur are allmixed East Asian and Caucasian. Uyghur advocates recognize the Tarimcadavers, remains of ancient people who occupied the area. However,studies into the genetics of antique Tarim cadavers and theirrelations with present Uyghur remain contentious. They arecontroversial both to the Chinese administration officers concernedwith ethnic autonomy and the Uyghur campaigners concerned thatstudies could affect their rights of being indigenous to the area [ CITATION Dwy05 l 1033 ].


Theantiquity of the Uyghur people and their ethnic foundation is acontentious issue between the Chinese authorities and Uyghurnationalists. Historians perceived the Uyghur as the originaloccupants of Xinjiang with a lengthy history. As written by MuhemmedImin Bughra, who was an Uyghur historian and politician, the Turkshave a 9000-year or more historical account. On the other hand,Turghun Almas also a historian assimilated findings of Tarim cadaversto assert that Uyghur has over 6400 years of antiquity. Similarly,the World Uyghur Congress contend they have a 4,000-year past.Nevertheless, Chinese authority affirms that the Uyghur in Xinjiangmoved from the Tiele tribes. Additionally, they only became thedominant political and social force in Xinjiang in the ninth centuryafter migrating from Mongolia when Uyghur Khaganate collapsed andsupplanted the Han Chinese, who occupied the place since the HanDynasty. Most of the modern Western researchers, though, do notconsider the current Uyghur to be of straight linear ancestry fromthe ancient Uyghur Khaganate of Mongolia. Rather, they take them tobe progenies of several people, one of them being the ancient Uyghur.

Figure1: An 8th-CenturyUyghur Khagan

Asper the historical findings, the Uyghur Khaganate overthrew theTurkic Khaganate to settle in the southern part of Lake Baikal. Thegroup lasted from 744 to 840 before being defeated by YeniseiKirghiz. During this time, civil war and famine hit the regionweakening them. After being displaced, most of the tribal groupspreviously controlled by the Uyghur dispersed and migrated fromMongolia.


Figure2: Uyghur king of the Turfan area attended by servants. Mogao Caves,409, 11th– 13thcentury

TheGanzhou Kingdom was the easternmost state that lasted between 870 and1036 before the Western Xia absorbed it. Its capital was near thecurrent Zhangye, Gansu, China. Current Yugurs claim to be progeniesof these Uyghur. Qocho kingdom is the second Uyghur state. Thekingdom lasted for around six centuries between the 9th and the 14thcentury. Its capital was in Qocho, currently known as Gaochang.Though the Uyghur were previously Manichaean, they changed toBuddhism. They would later join the rising Mongol Empire, where theyworked as civil servants. However, the kingdom was overthrown byChagatai Khanate in the 1390s. As illustrated in figure 2 above,Kings were well respected and accorded all their needs. The picturedemonstrates how servants attended to them. Most of the pictures werecarved in caverns like the Mogao Caves [ CITATION Vic06 l 1033 ].

Uyghur’sCulture and Visual Arts

Thecommunity’s cultural aspects entail music, clothing, cuisine, art,literature, and dance. They provide distinctive features about thecommunity. Assessment of the facets above will provide the visualcharacteristics of the Uyghur [ CITATION Muk02 l 1033 ].


Figure3: Auspicious song from the Tianshan Mountain

Uygurfolk music is unique in Xinjiang. It has inherited the excellentcustoms of the ancient music of Yutian, Qiuci, Yizhou, Gaochang,Yizhou, and Shule. Uyghur folk skill is a visual knack made byindividuals to meet common social essentials. The description of folkart is virtual to the definition of the power of royal palace, theknack of aristocracies, and scholars as well as skilled artists.Firstly, it is a shared art shaped by millions in the working class,not just a few career artists. It is the skill of workers, not justdiehard experts it is amateur, not specialized. Furthermore, itssocietal role makes it an art of inevitability, utilized in dailylives, ceremonies, rites, production, taboos, and beliefs. It was notenvisioned as a profitable product or service to serve politicaldesires [ CITATION Dwy05 l 1033 ].

Fromthe past ages of a primitive community, collective art was developedby the people together with the design of tools, shelter and otherrudimentary applications essential in the day-to-day life. However,the advent of social classes within the community detached the skillof an individual career artist from the folk art. Due to thesecategories, two core art techniques, as well as two culturalheritages, were formed. One is the shared architecture of thepopulaces that began during the prehistoric period. The other, an artdeveloped by individual experts and career artists. The paralleldevelopment and related effects of these two kinds of art have beenthe core driving force of Chinese national art. Regarding thesafeguarding of national culture, folk art is relatively stable. Itsignifies the belief of the ethnic group the psychological andemotional features of a country all through major phases in history.It is concurrent with the country’s culture and will not vanish aslong as the community exists. The traditional folk arts will continueto develop with time. In addition to that, cross-culturalinterchanges and progress will continuously add fresh life into folkart by passing novel ideas and materials [ CITATION Edw05 l 1033 ].

Becauseof Xinjiang’s precise geography as well as the continuousintercultural effects, musical panaches have grown along divergentpaths throughout the years. Each custom is characteristic of itszone. There exists three separate classes of Xinjiang songs i.e.Eastern Xinjiang, Daolang region and Southern Xinjiang. SouthernXinjiang tends to be immense. It also differs from one place toanother regarding the content. For instance, Hotan folk music ismodest, petite and primitive, replicating the land’s flavor. On theother hand, Kashgar folk music has a complex tempo, while the Kuqaones are boisterous, lively, and good for dancing [ CITATION Mic04 l 1033 ].

Thereare numerous types of customary Uygur music, with the most popularone being the archetypal Uygur melodic adaptation the &quotTwelveMuqam&quot. It is the focal point in the creation of Uygur music.The arty gem combines dancing and folk songs and contains over 340classical tunes, folk melodies, and some dances as well asinstrumental music. For many generations, this kind has attractedindividuals in both Southern and Northern Xinjiang. The Muqam schemeadvanced among the Uyghur in Central Asian regions and northwestChina for over 1500 years since the Arabic maqamat modal arrangement.The system has resulted to numerous musical genres amongst populatesof North Africa and Eurasia [ CITATION Edw05 l 1033 ].

“Sanam”translated as “beauty” is another type of traditional music thatentails singing while dancing to crowds. It comprises of around sevento dozens of bits of song-and-dance composition. The tune beginsgradually and progressively, then gains haste, and lastly ends in aculmination of cheerful music and enthusiastic dances. “Maida,&quotKuxak,&quot and &quotEytixish &quotare verbal tunes that aremutual within the Uygur community. Complemented by modest melodies,the utterer will talk through the song, normally about a woman and aman. Two individuals can also do the melodies. A range of devicessupplements Uygur music. During the Tang (618-907) and Sui (581-618)reigns, the five-stringed “pipa” which is a tagged thread devicewith Harp “konghou,”, and fretted fingerboard an antique tuggedstringed gadget, were prevalent in Qiuci among other regions. Themodern Uygur music advanced from antique melodic devices on theWestern parts, contemporary Chinese and foreign appliances itcomprises wind, numerous stringed, and drumming devices [ CITATION Edw05 l 1033 ].


Uyghurdances illustrate diligence, courage, openness and optimism. Wristand head movements differentiate folk dances. Their cleverharmonization is heightened by the characteristic stance of theslanted head, thrust chest and upright waist. The dances, especiallySanam, express the Uygur` moods and character.

Figure4: Uyghur dance

Figure5: Uyghur dance

Thequick turns of Uygur traditional dances accentuate haste and aretrailed by a sudden halt, similar to a soaring eagle that breaksabruptly. The different dances all have their turns. The dance endswith a turning contest. There are distinct beats for various Uygurfolk dances, but dotted rhythms and syncopation are strikingcharacteristics in many. The most famous folk dance amongst the Uyguris the Sanam. During celebrations, weddings among other celebrations,people always dance Sanam. Another dance, Dolan refers to an ancientUygur folk dance popular in some parts of Aksu and Kashgar. Dolan isa primordial term for Uygurs living in many places within the TarimBasin. It is said to designate hunting. Nevertheless, certain peoplesay this dance portrays a battle. Another form of dance is Sama. Itis a kind of group dance for Newruz (Uyghur New Year) and othercentenaries. It is popular in Kucha and Kashgar area. Initially, Samawas the term used to describe a primitive religion amongst primordialUygurs. People would pray to gods of nature for harvest and huntingby singing, thumping drums and dancing, receiving instructions fromtheir religious leader Sama. The ritual service slowly turned into agroup performance for Newruz and other ceremonies. Then it changedinto a solo executed on festive events. The dance and its musicalsupplement are included in the third section of the Twelve Muqam(Mukhpul).

Musicand dances are common means which people use to showcase their innerself. Uyghur’s unique music and dances promote the visualrepresentation of their culture. The movements while dancing,melodies while singing all depict a distinctive culture that is notimitable by other ethnic groups. Additionally, the immersion ofstriking rhythmic elements in the music and dances deliberately orinvoluntarily maintained their features and even stressed overstatedvisual practices to display the artistic elegances of their group.Boosted by this great cultural mind, some practices and conceptionapproaches from glamorous art are contained instinctively in theirethnic group [ CITATION Muk02 l 1033 ].

Uygurs’visual art in Cuisine

Uyghurfood depicts both Chinese and Asian elements. A characteristic Uyghurdish is polu. The standard version of this dish comprises of carrotsand chicken or mutton. They are first cooked in oil with onions, thenwater and rice are added before the whole dish is steamed. Driedapricots and raisins can also be added.

Figure6: Uyghur polo

Anothercommon meal is grilled meat or kebab.

Figure7: Kebab

Thelamb kebabs are soaked in a mixture of onion, pomegranate juice, andgarlic that add a kick of tartness to the lamb. A combination ofcumin and salt are also added. Camel, carrots, goose, mutton, beef,chicken, tomatoes, peppers, onions, fruits, celery, and differentdairy products typify the Uyghur food.

Throughoutthe globe, different cultures identify themselves with a unique food.The artistry used to make the foods differ particularly in theingredients. Judging from the visual exhibition of the foods, itappears that the enticing Uygur meals portray sweetness and flavorentailed in their culture. Though they value simplicity regarding thepreparation of foods, the entire process comprises of intricatelymixed ingredients that result to a sumptuous meal [ CITATION Wei02 l 1033 ].

Uygurs’visual art in Clothing

TheUygur people adore clothes made of cotton. Uygur women usually wearone-piece dresses with baggy sleeves and bright vests. They heightenthese with silk scarves. The men also wear gowns harmonized with longveils round their waist. It is hard to see a Uygur without a cap.Caps are quite vital in their clothing. The women normally putdesigns on their caps, adding colorful embroidery and pictures. Theyalso like to decorate with bracelets, earrings, and necklaces. Inaddition to that, the women keep their hair long. The braids candifferentiate single and married females. As married women wear onlytwo braids, single ladies are allowed to wear as many braids as theywant. Another distinctive element of Uyghur men is their knives.Their culture necessitates men to carry knives on their bodies as asign of masculinity. The clothes are weaved depending on the weatherconditions. In some parts, the group makes their attires by knittinghomegrown resources and using plants to dye the fabric. Due to thewarm and scorching conditions, the clothing is lightweight and comfy.The primary colors utilized are black, blue, and brown due to theaccessibility of dying resources. In the artistic model of

Uyghurs,the display of these formal rudiments is unswerving with suchpositive value judgment as beauty, kindness, vitality, etc. In thatregard, beauty is replicated in the plane decoration of theirattires, while the beauty of splendor and over-elaboration, commonlyrelated with decent life and distinguished eminence, has adopted intothe cultural cognizance of the indigenous group in correspondencewith their original quest for beauty and art [ CITATION Mic04 l 1033 ].

Uygurs’visual art in Education and Medicine

Archaeologically,the education standards of Old Uyghur people was higher than theother surrounding communities. According to Chinese surveys, Uyghurlanguage is the most spoken one for roughly10.6 million Uyghur peopleliving in East Turkestan and another 1.5 million Uyghur diaspora. Thegroup emphasizes on education though girls might be withdrawn fromschools after reaching certain levels. The aesthetic medicine isUnani. It is based on the ancient Greek theory that treated ailmentsthrough oases and deserts of Central Asia. The medicine is stillfound in many parts including the street stands. Like othertraditional medical cultures, diagnosis of illness is usually made bychecking the symptoms, pulse as well the history of the disease. Thenthe herbalist smacks various dried herbs to make personalizedmedicines as per the prescription. Contemporary Uygur medicalhospitals embraced current practitioners and science to constructevidence-based centers. In fact, the Uygur medical information hascontributed to the emanation of Chinese medicine. They used snakes,different plant types, and opium, to instigate the rise of Chinesemedicine [ CITATION Joh68 l 1033 ].

Thenatural disclosure of medical cognizance provides Uyghur visual artwith discrete traits from others. These are personifications of theircultural physiognomies: the constant sacred feelings etchedprofoundly inside the hearts of the group and assimilated into theheritage of their culture in the way of shared oblivion. Their uniqueview on culture is also seen on the religious beliefs. According tothe Uygurs, religious belief is not required by external forces butis an intrinsic trait of their culture [ CITATION Vic06 l 1033 ].


Visualarts and culture of the Uyghur is a broad topic due to the manyaspects involved. As portrayed by the historical backgrounds, theUyghur have a unique way of representing their culture. From theperspectives of religious, cuisine, traditional attires, music anddances, the distinctive nature of the community can be seen. Throughtheir music and dances, Uyghurs’ illustrate diligence, courage,openness and optimism. In the global perspective, different culturesuse music and dances to display their inner self. In other words,through dancing, they typify their cultures. In that respect, theUyghur’s unique music and dances promote the visual representationof their culture. The movements while dancing, melodies while singingall depict a distinctive culture that is not imitable by other ethnicgroups. Their eating habits also illustrate their uniqueness. Most ofthem take three meals per day just like many communities across theglobe. However, the three meals are delicately prepared todistinguish it from other cultures. It seems the enticing Uygur mealsdepict sweetness and flavor entailed in their culture. Clothing isanother core element of culture. Every community tends to havedifferent attires symbolizing various things. Apart from wearingbrilliant national colors, communities embrace their cultures byadorning traditional attires during countrywide events. Uyghurs valuebeauty. In fact, in their culture, beauty is shown through decoratedattires. On the other hand, the beauty of splendor andover-elaboration is entrenched in their culture. Such beauty iscommonly related to decent life and distinguished eminence. Educationand medicine are also core components of culture. Throughout theworld, communities have their way of treating illnesses as well asproviding education. The Uyghur community was historically moreeducated than any other group. Their medical activities led to theemergence of the Chinese medicine that includes yoga, use of snakesand opium among others. As illustrated above, the natural disclosureof medical cognizance provides Uyghur visual art with discretetraits. In general, the Uyghur community is embodied by its culture.


Annie, Wu. Uygur Minority. 29 December 2015. 28 June 2016.

Cultural China. &quotAuspicious melody from the Tianshan Mountain – Uygur music.&quot 2014. Auspicious melody from the Tianshan Mountain – Uygur music. 28 June 2016.

Davis, Edward. Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture. New York: Routledge, 2005.

Dillon, Michael. &quotXinjiang: China`s Muslim Far Northwest.&quot 2004. Print.

Dwyer, Arienne. The Xinjiang Conflict: Uyghur Identity, Language Policy, and PoliticalDiscourse. Washington, 2005. Document.

Fairbank, John. &quotThe Chinese world order: traditional China`s foreign relations.&quot 1968. Document.

Lattimore, Owen. &quotReturn to China`s Northern Frontier.&quot The Geographical Journal (1973): 233-242.

Mair, Victor. &quotContact And Exchange in the Ancient World.&quot 2006. Document.

Mukhpul, Rachel Harris, and Yasin. &quotMusic of the Uyghurs.&quot Encyclopedia of the Turks, vol. 6. Istanbul: Yeni Turkiye (2002): 542-549. Document.

Wei, C. X. George and Xiaoyuan Liu. &quotExploring Nationalisms of China: Themes and Conflict.&quot 2002. Document.



Sexeducation in America has a long history. It was backed by the U.S.Public Health Service in 1940, gained motion during the early yearsof AIDS in the 1980s, but faced opposition from social conservatives.The main queries are is sex education fit for teens? When is theright time to introduce sex education? How detailed should be thetopic? Parents, educators, activists, the government, religiousgroups as well as school administrators are divided on this matter. A2013 study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP)revealed that roughly 47% of students in high school indulged insexual activities. Sexual intercourse at adolescence is closelyrelated to heightened chances of contracting STIs or even unplannedpregnancy.

Callsare consistently being made to include comprehensive sex education inthe schools. Some think it should be taught from kindergarten level.Others prefer high schools. However, some individuals think sexeducation should be taught in all the age groups though with varyingcapacities. As required by the Netherlands law, primary schoolstudents are entitled to some form of sexual education. The system isquite flexible and addresses particular principles such as sexualassertiveness and diversity. It means boosting respect for all sexualpreferences and assisting the students to acquire skills to avoidsexual abuse, intimidation, and coercion. The guiding principle isquite straightforward: sexual development is a common procedure thatall young people must experience. Therefore, they have the right tofrank, honest information about the subject (Melker).

Sexualeducation has several advantages. By the sentiments of the WorldHealth Organization (WHO), sexual education ought to be imparted tochildren from the age of 12. The body affirmed that 34% of HIV casesare between the ages of 12 and 19. Proponents of sex educationbelieve it is advantageous in many ways. It can assist children inschools to understand the effects of sex in their lives by broadeningtheir knowledge and dispelling myths associated with it. Theeducation would also answer all the questions pertaining theirchanging body and hormonal surges. It is natural for kids to becurious about the other gender.

Theprogram would alleviate such issues by assisting them to understandand find answers by themselves. The globe is also changing, andbehaviors are always altering. One such ill behavior is childrenabuse. Incorporating sexual education in the curriculum could play anactive role to curb such incidents by enlightening them about goodand bad touch. Educating the children at school is also much betterthan letting them utilize other resources like the internet andpornographic materials. In fact, the internet has bulky informationabout sex which might be misleading. The constant rise in teenagepregnancies, as well as STDs, is another primary reason. If sexeducation is accessible within the schools, then such cases mayreduce significantly. The education would transform children intoresponsible adults. Currently, children become sexually active attender ages. Therefore, teaching them sexual matters could help theminternalize the advantages of abstinence or even aspects ofresponsible sexual activities (Stocker).

Opponentsof the move believe teaching children on sexual matters at school mayembarrass or excite them. Without proper dissemination of theknowledge, children may not be interested in the subject. There isalso a belief that most educators at school are not experts. In thatregard, they teach vague ideas which are even more harmful to thekids. Children tend to grasp things as they are, due to theirimpressionable mind, hence, imparting wrong information at tenderages may transform them into ignorant adults. Sex education at schooldoes not correlate with religious teachings. The two aspects canconfuse the students even more if not well sorted. Opponents alsothink the choice of when and how to impart sexual knowledge on thechildren is the parents’. In other words, the parents should beonly ones to choose when their sons and daughters need the sexualeducation. It is also believed, teaching kids at tender agesregarding sex is immoral. Children should be taught to observe valuesexcluding issues pertaining sex (Melker).

Dueto the above statements, there is a moral dilemma on whether sexeducation should be taught in schools. Surveys have shown that bothproponents and opponents of the subject are divided equally. Themajor stakeholders involved in this debate include:

  • The parents

  • Teachers

  • Sexuality experts

  • Children/students

  • The government

  • International bodies e.g. WHO among others that protect the children rights

  • Religious groups

Theopposition is mostly drawn from the parents and religious groups whobelieve it is unethical to teach children on sexual matters. Theparents think the responsibility should be left to them. On the otherhand, the religious groups are confident that sacred books should bea guideline to all the children, parents as well as their teachers.However, as stated by the proponents, recent activities throughoutthe globe call for a change in tact. Children must be aware of theills entailed in the societies to curb abuses.

TheVirtue Ethics theory correlates with the opponent`s assertions.According to this theory, an emphasis is put on the virtues, or moralcharacter, in contrast to the mechanism which stresses duties(deontology) or consequences of actions (consequentialism). A virtueof generosity or honesty or decency is not just a propensity to dowhat is generous, honest or decent. It is a valuable character trait,rooted in its possessor. It cannot be regarded as a habit such assmoking. Virtue is entrenched in a person and goes beyond the usualdisposition to do honest actions for particular reasons. It involvesemotions, values, perceptions, reactions, sensibilities,expectations, interests, attitudes, emotional responses, and choices.

Inthat regard, possessing a virtue means having a particular complexmindset. Sexual activities among teens do not happen due to lack ofeducation. Instead, the absence of virtue is the core contributor(Rachels). Even without educating the children on sexual matters butimpart in them virtues at tender ages, they are less likely toindulge in immoral behaviors. One major religious source is theBible, which states “train up a child in the way he should go, andthey will never depart from it even at old age.” Teaching sexualeducation is, therefore, a parent’s responsibility and not ateacher’s duty. According to the theory, a morally upright personcannot be identified by just viewing his/her actions. For instance,an honest kid cannot be designated as the one who consistently tellsthe truth since it is the fact, for one can have the honesty virtuewithout being indiscreet or tactless.

Thehonest child recognizes “that would be a lie” on the basis fornot making particular sentiments in certain situations, and gives dueweight. Drawing from that assumption, a decent and morally uprightchild has the virtue deeply instilled in him/her and can make properjudgments. The youth knows what is morally wrong or right withoutnecessarily going to class. Solving the issues of sexual activitiesamong the children can only be done from the parent perspective inconjunction with the church. Though sexual education in school isimportant, parents are the core stakeholders because they know theirchildren better.

Kant’stheory exemplifies deontological moral concept that can be consideredin this topic. According to the model, the wrongness or rightness ofactivities does not depend on their consequences but on whether theyrealize our responsibility (Rachels). The theory states that there isan absolute principle of morality known as Categorical Imperative. Itdefines our moral obligations. Categorical Imperatives areunconditional. For example, “do not evade your taxes.” Even ifavoiding the taxes could serve an interest, one may not do so. Inthis theory, it is believed morality applies to everybody and onecannot evade it. According to Kant’s first formulation, you mustnot be permitted to do anything that you cannot allow anyone else todo. In addition to that, the theory insists that an individual isgood or bad depending on the motivation of his/her actions and notthe goodness of the outcomes. Therefore, if a student is motivated todo what is morally right, he/she can achieve the same withoutconsidering the consequences.


Thetwo theories correlate in viewing morality as a virtue instilledwithin us. During the children’s upbringing, it is easier to impartmorals rather than waiting until they are in high school. When thechildren are guided in a morally upright manner, they can deal withsocietal issues that occur during their youth. Therefore, sinceparents are the core influence of morality teachings, they arefundamental in administering sexual education. The current changes inthe society cannot be ignored i.e. ease of access to pornographicmaterials, sexual abuses among others. However, introducing them inthe school curriculum does not guarantee morality among the youths.If teens lack morals, even if you teach them abstinence or safe sex,they will most likely indulge in the acts. Therefore, virtues areembedded in them during their upbringing of which the parents play asignificant role


Melker, Saskia de. &quotThe case for starting sex education in kindergarten.&quot 27 May 2015. The case for starting sex education in kindergarten. 27 June 2016.

Rachels, James Rachels, and Stuart. The Elements of Moral Philosophy. McGraw-Hill Education, 2014.

Stocker, Michael. &quotThe Schizophrenia of Modern Ethical Theories.&quot Journal of Philosophy (1976): 453-466.

Svensson, Frans. &quotVirtues Ethics and the Search for an Account of Right Action.&quot Ethical Theory and Moral Practice (2010): 255-271.


Effectivenessof Anti-plagiarism Software in Deterring Plagiarism

Theuse of anti-plagiarism software to detect copying of works frompublished articles and websites is currently being employed in manyeducational centers. The rationale behind the application of thistool is to minimize replication and also to encourage students to putmore of their personal input accompanied by the proper citation ofthe sources that have been used. While plagiarism is still beingpracticed, there is significant indication that the levels havereduced considerably. The relationship between various methods usedand the overall outcome bring us to the question: Is anti-plagiarismsoftware useful in deterring the stealing of Published work? In myopinion, such software is effective in discouraging theft ofavailable materials because it can detect cases of plagiarism bysearching through websites, archived databases, and the internet toshow the level or percentage of copied work. By using thisinformation, the teachers and tutors can penalize scholars thushindering plagiarism.


Anti-plagiarismsoftware is an efficient deterrent to stealing published work becauseit can detect when students try to deceive lecturers by changingwords, adding sentences, or restructuring their papers, it is fastand reliable, and it also archives past submitted papers on theinternet or in-house resources for future checking. Schools andcolleges should make use of these tools to ensure that studentspresent their work and reduce the amount of plagiarism in theeducation sector. However, the ineffectiveness towards limiting theftis centered on the inability of such software to analyze all spheresof writing. This gives room for students to continue with thepractice.


Assignments,term papers, and research are part of the requirements for studentsat any level of study. During the undertaking of these demands,students tend to do a shoddy job sometimes copying and pastingdirectly from websites and other published materials. While thispractice is illegal, the other issue that comes into play is thatstudents are not learning. Instead, they use other people’s jobsand claim them as their own without doing an in-depth research tounderstand the concepts therein. Plagiarism detection software isdedicated to addressing this issue as much as possible.


Anti-plagiarismsoftware is fast and reliable, therefore it can be used to check andprovide an overview of submitted assignments accurately and quickly.There are various online and offline software such as Turnitin, essayverification engine and and they all can be applied bythe teachers, lecturers or professors. The process usually involvesplacing the work into the tool and a report is generated to indicatethe sentences that have been copied and the overall percentage oforiginality [ CITATION ESC14 l 1033 ].In this short period, the instructor can attach the report to theassignmentand the student can to review the work. Marks can be awarded usingthe level of plagiarism for example if it is less than 5%, full markscan be granted while the targets reduce with increasing cases ofplagiarism. The speed and accuracy of this software combined with theconsequences warn the students and can encourage them to be morecareful.


Insome cases, students may try to mislead their instructors by changinga few words, adding sentences or re-organizing paragraphs so thatplagiarism is not detected. The effectiveness of some of thissoftware is shown by their ability to detect such alterations.Apparently, an assignment which has stolen work but with synonymsused to replace certain words will be identified. For this reason, astudent will be discouraged from trying to mislead the examiner [ CITATION Fra12 l 1033 ].Re-organization of paragraphs will also be noticed and indicated. Theoverall outcome is that a slight detection of an attempt to piracyand breaching of intellectual property will not go unnoticed.


Accordingto Chris Harrick, Vice President of Turnitin, anti-plagiarismsoftware is based on the gathering of archives from internet, websitearticles and peer-reviewed articles. Student writings are compared toover 45 billion web pages, 110 million published content material,and 400 million student papers [ CITATION Cor14 l 1033 ].Every day, new additional sources are archived for future use, andthis translates to an updated database that is not easy to go aroundwithout being discovered. So students who are working on their papersshould understand that the originality of their submissions issubjected to high-level scrutiny before being accepted as original.


Anti-plagiarismsoftware on the other hand may be deemed ineffective because itcannot distinguish between correctly cited materials and plagiarizedones [ CITATION ESC14 l 1033 ].This event can happen in cases where the writer has quoted astatement but cited it correctly the software will identify it asplagiarism. Similarly, papers that have tables,figures and numbers are not easy to be observed for incidences ofpiracy. For instance, the source of an article with a table with datathat has been directly copied from published materials cannot beeasily identified. Essentially, the theft-checking tools could beconsidered ineffective since a considerable number of individualshave found ways of plagiarizing and getting away with it.


Althoughplagiarism checking software may not be 100% efficient due to thesetbacks and disadvantages mentioned above, its role towardsminimizing theft of other people’s work is paramount. Most of thecounterarguments can be handled by the tutor who has to judge whetherthe plagiarism was accidental or intentional. The ultimate functionof the anti-plagiarism software is apparently achieved through theuncovering of students misdeeds. The outcome of being caughtcertainly dissuades learners from practicing such.


ESC Instructional Technology Toolbox. &quotEffectiveness of Anti-Plagiarism Software.&quot 2014. Anti-Plagiarism Software Pros and Cons. Document. 26 June 2016.

Raimondi, Franco. On the Effectiveness of Anti-plagiarism Software. London: Middlesex University, 2012. Document.

Turner, Cory. &quotTurnitin And The Debate Over Anti-Plagiarism Software.&quot 25 August 2014. NPR ED. Document. 26 June 2016.


Imageryand Theme in “Whoso List to Hunt.”

Thecentral theme in Sir Thomas Wyatt’s sonnet “The Lover Despairingto Attain Unto His Lady’s Grace Relinquisheth the Pursuit” whichis also entitled “Whoso List to Hunt” is about a man pursuing hislover and giving up the pursuit because of desperation in winning thefavour of the lady: “Whoso list to Hunt, I know where is a hind, /But as for me, Helas, I may no more. / The vain travail hath weariedme so sore” (Wyatt 1-3). The theme of the poem is a vain love. Thisis shown as the persona goes after a young lady whom he is not ableto catch because she belongs to the king: “Noli me tangere, forCaesar’s I am, / And wild for to hold, though I seem tame” (Wyatt13-14). If the persona goes on with the pursuit, he will pay theprize and probably get executed.

Thesonnet employs imagery as it tells of several hunters chasing afemale deer or a hind: “Draw from the deer, but as she fleethafore, / Fainting I follow. I leave off, therefore” (Wyatt 6-7). Inthe poem, hunting for the deer and the hind is metaphorical, the deerhunt is a symbol of young men pursuing an attractive young lady, andthe hind is a symbol of the young lady herself. The poet also usesimagery when he compares the task of pursuing, catching and winningthe favour of the young lady to a hard task of trapping the wind witha net: “Who list her hunt, I put him out of doubt, / As well as Imay spend his time in vain” (Wyatt 8-9).


Gilfillan,George. ThePoetical Works of Sir Thomas Wyatt.Edinburgh: James Nichol (1858). Print.

Thomson,Patricia. Introductionto Wyatt: The Critical Heritage,London: Kegan Paul &amp Routledge (1974). Print.



Adams,Jill. &quotAir Pollution and Climate Change: Are tougher regulationsnecessary?&quot (2015): 1-27. Document.

JillAdam’s book offers honest insights on the extent of air pollutionin the global perspective. By taking a cautious approach, the authorillustrates how human activities have intensified air pollutionacross the globe. Air pollution has a direct and indirect impact onpeople. It directly kills people and indirectly increases climatechange. Human activities such as combustion of fossil fuels pollutethe air. Effluents from coal-powered industries release Carbon IVOxide whose concentration in the atmosphere is increasing rapidly.

Jillexplains how air pollution has affected people’s way of life acrossthe globe. It kills roughly 3.3 million people annually worldwide.The number is inclusive of 55,000 Americans. The author utilizesresearch works done by international bodies to affirm the extent ofair pollution. The author also uses scientific presumptions derivedby experts to ascertain the findings. As explained, some industrialcompanies have challenged the viability of industrial effluentseffect on climate change. Though international leaders are workinghard to reduce climate change, they still face numerous challenges.

Theauthor is well acclimatized to the geographical aspects of the globe.By writing several publications on climate change, the author hasconcrete information regarding the emerging issues. Examples fromvarious parts of the world make the publication even more reliable.

Defra.AirPollution: Action in a Changing Climate.London: Defra Publications, 2010. Document.

Thepublication has been availed by Defra i.e. Department for EnvironmentFood and Rural Affairs. The authors illustrate how air quality hasimproved significantly over the last 50 years in U.K. Unlike the1950s where choking smog was common, the country’s air quality hasimproved considerably. The publication demonstrates the connectionbetween air quality and life expectancy. Surveys consistently show arise in deaths emanating from air pollution.

Theperiodical was meant to champion the reduction of the effects causingclimate change. In the process, it would benefit greenhouse gasemissions as well as air pollution. As the authors explain, all theseclimate problems arise from the same sources. In that regard,implementing policies will benefit all the departments accordingly.The document gives a summary of all the major issues pertaining airpollution and outlines the mechanisms that can be used to minimizethe effects. The techniques are derived from the interconnection ofair pollution and climate change.

Thedocument is a reliable source since a governmental departmentpublishes it. The authors involved in research are quiteknowledgeable. Drawing the effects of climate change and its relationto health costs can help citizens save billions of cash. As thedocument affirms, air quality is mainly influenced by humanactivities. It, therefore, provides mitigation measures to alleviatethese global issues.

Camarsa,G., Hudson, T., Toland, J., and Oliver, M. Lifeand Air Quality.Luxembourg: European Commison, 2014. Print.

Theauthors provide a detailed report on the vitality of combating airpollution. Citizens are enlightened on the importance of air quality.As per the current Eurobarometer, air pollution is the corecontributor to environmentally caused deaths. The European Union hasembarked on mechanisms to curb the norm across the member states. Theclean air policy package launched in December 2013 is an example of alegislative initiative introduced at the European States.

Theauthors were mainly involved in assessing the extent of air pollutionwithin the European States. In addition to that, they provided thescale of the problem in the global perspective. Apart from that, theyrelayed information about climate change as well as its leadingcauses. Appropriate measures can then be taken to mitigate theeffects and make the environment conducive. As highlighted by thispublication, the LIFE is among the tools that can instigate afavorable environment. It also shows areas that are most susceptibleto air pollution. The publication also devises policies that are usedin the various departments to minimize the air pollution. Sectorssuch as transport, agriculture, and energy are the most affected.

Theauthors are highly trained in the environmental aspects. Forinstance, Gabriel Camarsa, Michael Oliver, and Justin Toland amongothers are environmental experts. They were trusted by the EuropeanCommission to conduct the research. Due to the sensitivity of thematter, the publication is also free. Hence, anyone interested inclimate change can access it. Climate change particularly Airpollution is a detrimental issue that must be addressed worldwide.

NOAA.&quotGlobal Climate Change Indicators.&quot 2016. GlobalClimate Change Indicators.Retrieved from Global Climate Change Indicators:

NationalOceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is an internationalbody that champions for the reduction of the effects of climatechange. As per the article, the Earth’s climate is changingdrastically. By using different measuring tools, the report shows thechanging aspects of the globe. One of the effects is global warming.The world is experiencing some irregular weather patterns, and theglobal temperatures are on the increase. According to the article,there is a link between human activities and the changing climate.

Accordingto the measuring tools, carbon dioxide concentrations have risen byabout 35% since the beginning of industrial revolution. Approximately80% of CO2 emanating from human activities are due to fossil fuels.Another 20% is due to deforestation among other related agriculturalactivities. Evidence also suggest that solar energy has not changed.Solar energy amounts have remained natural over the years hencecannot be accredited to the changing climate changes.

Thearticle is quite reliable since an environmental body provides it.The research works cut across the globe. The body has also beeneffective for an extended period. Hence, it has assessed many effectsof human activities concerning climate change. It also hasknowledgeable researchers who satisfy empirical studies withpractical examples.


Adams, Jill. &quotAir Pollution and Climate Change: Are tougher regulations necessary?&quot Air Pollution and Climate Change: Are tougher regulations necessary? (2015): 1-27. Document.

Camarsa, G., Hudson, T., Toland, J., and Oliver, M. Life and Air Quality. Luxembourg: European Commission, 2014. Print.

Defra. Air Pollution: Action in a Changing Climate. London: Defra Publications, 2010. Document.

NOAA. &quotGlobal Climate Change Indicators.&quot 2016. Global Climate Change Indicators. Retrieved from Global Climate Change Indicators:


AirPollution and Climate Change

Climatechange is a global concern. It affects humans, animals, and aquaticlife in various capacities. For example, polar bears are losing theirsea ice habitats because of global warming. The issues entailed inglobal warming can be traced back to human activities. Since theadvent of technology, detrimental impacts on the environment havebeen seen worldwide. A good example is combustion of coal. Effluentsfrom coal-powered plants are released to the atmosphere bringingabout the air pollution as well as contributing to global warming. Asevidenced by research, CO2released from these industries bring about the greenhouse effect thatcontributes to global warming (Defra).

Jill,Adams. Air Pollution and Climate Change: Are tougher regulationsnecessary? November 13, 2015. Volume 25, Issue 41 of CQ Researcher,ISSN 1056-2036

Jilloffers an insight on how air pollution has affected people across theglobe. It kills roughly 3.3 million people annually around the world.As illustrated by Jill Adams, almost 55,000 Americans die yearly dueto the impacts of air pollution and climate change as a whole. Inaddition to that, the rates of CO2are continuously rising, yet they contribute to global climatechange. Researchers have ascertained that coal-fired power plants andsmog-causing ozone are the key contributors to climate change. Thecoal power plants emit CO2at alarming levels much to the dissatisfaction of climate changeactivists. Though President Obama initiated a sweeping plan to limitcarbon dioxide emissions especially in coal-powered plants,industrial officials have retaliated hence derailing it. Theofficials argue that the rules are too expensive, yet the marketforces are adequate to reduce pollution. On the other hand, theenvironmental lawyers dispute this statement and encourages thegovernment to tighten the emission standards. Air pollution is theglobe`s hugest ecological health risk, with several problems indeveloping countries like India and China. As Jill demonstrates,people in some cities have to wear facemasks to prevent thick fogsamong other environmental pollutants. In November 3, 2015, residentsof Harbin, a town of roughly 10 million people in northeastern China,had to protect themselves using facemasks. They were avoiding a densesmog thought to have been caused by industrial effluents. Therefore,it is paramount for stringent measures to be employed to reduce thelevels or else future generations will suffer even more.

Jillfurther elaborates how big industries are blocking the regulationsfrom taking effect. In their quest to stop the implementation of therules, industrial officers have moved to court to challenge thevalidity of the plan i.e. the clean power plant. They believeindustrial emissions have no much impact on climate change. The costof implementing the new rules supersedes the rate of emissions. Thebig companies are adamant that implementation of the laws should becarried out gradually to suit all parties. However, as noted in thearticle, the effects of climate change are growing at an alarmingrate. The procedures to contain the norm should have been implementeda long time ago. The laws should be applied spontaneously regardlessof the industrial repercussions. Jill further states the need toventure more into renewable energy sources as an alternative tofossil fuels. The development of clean sources of energy like solar,wind, hydro, and biomass would limit overreliance on fossil fuels. Asa result, emissions attributed to combustion of fossil fuels wouldreduce, decreasing air pollution, and promoting air quality in theprocess (Adams).


Adams, Jill. &quotAir Pollution and Climate Change: Are tougher regulations necessary?&quot Air Pollution and Climate Change: Are tougher regulations necessary? (2015): 1-27. Document.

Defra. Air Pollution: Action in a Changing Climate. London: Defra Publications, 2010. Document.

European Commission. Life and Air Quality. Luxembourg: European Union, 2014. Document.

NOAA. &quotGlobal Climate Change Indicators.&quot 2016. Global Climate Change Indicators. Retrieved from Global Climate Change Indicators: