HumanComputer Interaction Design
Table of Contents
Human Computer Interaction Design 4
Q. 1(a). Detailed Requirements Study / Analysis of the System 4
Usability of HCI 4
Beyond the Desktop 5
Ubiquitous computing 6
Task-artifact cycle 6
Q. 2(a). Systems Design 7
Q. 2(b). Perceptual Principles 9
Mental model principles 9
Principles based on attention 9
Q.3(a) System Evaluation 10
Intelligence Ambulance Project Report 10
Q3(c). Human-computer interface 11
User customization 11
Embedded computation 12
List of References 13
HumanComputer Interaction Design
Humancomputer interaction design emerged in 1980s and specialized incomputer science espousing cognitive science and human engineeringfactors. It is a research practice area which has continuouslyexpanded for three decades incorporating many concepts andapproaches. HCI resulted from the desire of many computer owners tointeract directly with their computers and rule out the tradition ofonly information technology interacting with computers (Carroll,2016). The introduction of personal software and computer platformssuch as text editors, spreadsheets, and interactive computer programsaccommodated everyone into the use of computer tools. However,computers had difficulties with their usability which led tointroduction of HCI due to its cognitive psychology, artificialintelligence, linguistics, cognitive anthropology, as well ascognitive engineering. HCI was beneficial because of its cognitivescience which offered users concepts skills.
Q. 1(a).Detailed Requirements Study / Analysis of the SystemUsability of HCI
HCIis easy to learn and use which contributed to its famous nature incomputing. It has enhanced creativity, supports human development,aesthetic tension, and fun to use. It enables text editing and hasspreadsheets. It encompasses visualization, collaborative systems,system development process, and information systems. It has expandedbeyond computer science because it is broader and diverse. It hasadded its preliminary focus on generic user’s demeanor toaccommodate organizational computing, cognitively and physicallyimpaired persons, and access to the elderly (Cockton, 2016). Itsdesktop office applications has included education, learning, games,health, emergency response and planning, systems that supportcommunity and collaboration,medical, and health applications.
Ithas also expounded from traditional graphical user interfaces andincluded myriad interaction techniques, devices, multi-modalinteractions, and model-based user interface specification. HCIfocuses on usability and maintainability as well as empiricaldevelopment of software. Software development processes relied onempirical testing and iterative prototyping. Moreover, it hasprogressed in computer graphics and retrieval of information. HCI hasabiding technical focus in its usability, which means that it is easyto learn and use. It holds fields together which effectively andbroadly influences science and technology (Cockton, 2016). HCI hasmany sub communities which are diverse. These include ubiquitouscomputing used in geo-spatial information systems, vehicle systems,community informatics, wearable devices, sensor networks, ambientintelligence, handheld devices, programming tools, and techniques.Currently, HCI is a multifaceted community that is integritycommitted in valuing human activity and improving usability.
HCIhas improved desktop qualities of graphical user interfaces. It haschanged the display of icons double clicking properties. HCI hasenabled presentation of icons which are useful to people with manyfiles and folders. Computers are designed in a way that they candisplay icons and data objects. HCI has communication channels andnetwork making users to retrieve their emails and interact with otherpeople. Computers enable collaborative activities such as onlineforums, social bookmarking, tagging services, and blogs, wikis, andmedia spaces. Moreover, it offers collaborative filtering systems andwork spaces (Cockton, 2016). It offers new mechanisms such as onlineauctions, soft sensors, reputation systems, and crowd sourcing.Social computing in HCI is rapidly developing as well as onlinecommunities like Linux Git Hub, which offer works of high quality.
HCIhas today introduced ubiquitous computing which incorporates humanhabitats and computing like clothing, furniture, cars, and homes. HCIinvestigates, develops, and harness new possibility areas as means ofexperiencing human activity.
HCIaddresses dynamically the coevolution of activities experienced bypeople such as interactive environments and tools. HCI assistsinteraction technologies, people’s interactions, and development ofskills. It understands human contemporary practices and aspirations,their embodiment, and elaborations (Carroll, 2016). It helps tounderstand new practices, explore design spaces, and realize newdevices and systems, and co-evolution of artifacts and activity.Secondly, task-artifact cycle applies while exploring newapplications and their domains, new designs and paradigms.
Theblock diagram of ambulance and control unit describes the processfollowed by GSM modem to receive messages about an accident and sendsit to Personal Computer (PC). The PC identifies the ambulance that isnear and directs it to pick the patient. Control section isresponsible for transmitting control signal between ambulance andvehicle through RF transmission. Immediately the ambulance arrivesnear the traffic signal (100m), the traffic signal is turned to greenvia RF communication, thus allowing the ambulance to arrive at thehospital in time (Dhadiwal, 2012). Accidents and their locations aresensed by the vehicle unit and sent to the controller while largescale vehicle vibration is sensed by the vibration sensor. The GPSsystem identifies the current location of the accident vehiclethrough following its longitude and latitude and transfers data toGSM module. The GSM module sends the data to the control unit withthe GSM as the emergency number. The controller locates the nearestambulance to the spot of the accident and identifies the straightpath between the ambulance, hospital, and spot of the accident(Dhadiwal, 2012). The controller immediately sends the path to theambulance and controls traffic signals along ambulance path andprovides a free ambulance path to make the ambulance reach thehospital in time. At the same time, the RF transmitter is turned onby the ambulance unit which communicates with traffic section.
Ergonomics and human factors
HCI has display designs which support the perception of systemvariables and facilitate processing of information. Tasks such ascontrolling, decision making, entertaining, and learning areperformed. Display design has thirteen principles that help to reduceerrors, training time, increase efficiency, and increase satisfactionof users.
Semiotics and branding
Source:IMGD 4000.(n.d). Humancomputer interaction (User interfaces) for games.
Theabove prototype design is a user interface for games. It explainsthat human computer interaction course assists students understandvarious problems and their nature. Students solve problemsefficiently and effectively from knowledge gained with understandingof various topics. They make use of design and evaluation ofiterative computer systems using basic psychological interactionconsiderations. They apply interactive language design, special inputoutput techniques, and hardware design. The design is used tocomplete projects such as software evaluation, experiments, andinterface development.
Allgames have one user interface which includes configuration screens,opening menu, onscreen buttons, and in-game. The basic rules includekeeping it simple, fast, and descriptive.
Principlesof human computer interface design
Thereare many novice players who are frequent, experts, knowledgeable, andintermittent in the game. The interface helps them accommodate allchallenges since novices require help and experts desire speed.
Shortcutsin the interface include macros, hidden commands, and special keyswhich increase interaction pace and help experts and novices.
Thereare consistent actions in similar situations having similarterminology. There are consistent colors, layout, fonts, andcapitalization.
Thesystem should respond for each user action to indicate successfullycompleted user activities.
Errorprevention and simple error handling
Theinterface prefers selection of menu instead of filling forms.Moreover, there are no alphabetic characters included in numericentry fields.
Reduceshort-term memory load
Thedesign enables human beings to store approximately seven informationpieces in short-term memory. There are screens with visible options,icons, and pull down menus.
Q.2(b). Perceptual Principles
Theyinclude making displays legible which assist to discern characters.Avoidance of limits of absolute judgment avoids asking users todetermine levels of variables, according to color, loudness, andsize. Top-down processing is a principle which allows expression ofsignals and interpretation, according to the experience of the user(Carroll, 2016).
It issues physical evidence of signals to users to assure that theyhave correctly understood it. Redundancy gain principle enablesproduction of signals in different shape, voice, print, and color inalternative formats. Similarity causes confusion is a principle usedin HCI to create discriminable elements to avoid confusion of similarobjects.
Principleof pictorial realism stresses that displays should be similar tovariables they represent. Principle of moving part ensures thatmoving elements are moving in patterns and directions that arecompatible to the mental model of the user and compared to itsmovement in the system.
Principlesbased on attention
Minimizingthe cost of accessing information principle applies when theattention of the user is diverted from one location to another insearch of required information. HCI ensures that the display designminimizes the cost through locating sources that are frequentlyaccessed in nearby locations. Proximity compatibility principleenables division of attention between two sources of information(Carroll, 2016). The sources are mentally integrated to impact closemental proximity. HCI ensures lower costs of accessing informationthrough linking common shapes, colors, and patterns. Principle ofmultiple resources enables users to process information from variedsources like simultaneously presenting visual and auditoryinformation.
Q.3(a). System EvaluationIntelligenceAmbulance Project Report
Ambulancesexperience problems when their sirens cannot be heard by policemen inheavy traffic areas. Bangalore, in particular, has heavy trafficmaking roads to be full jammed most of the time for at least 100meters. The short distance does not allow police to hear ambulancesiren and ignores it causing ambulances to wait for traffic to ease.At the same time, patients may die or their conditions worsen(Dhadiwal, 2012). The project introduces a system which turns trafficsignals green when emergency ambulances get near them. Delays ofambulances are caused by traffic congestion however, intelligenttraffic light system (ITLS) reduces them through perfunctorilycontrolling traffic lights along ambulance paths. The ambulance isrun by control unit which regulates traffic light according to thelocation of the ambulance and furnishes adequate route for theambulance. The scheme is automated fully to find accident spotscontrol traffic lights to assist patients reach to hospitals in time.
Theambulance carries an IR transmitter and IR receiver which is presentfew meters before signal making it to receive the signal as themodule sends the command to turn green through RF making all trafficposts have RF receiver (Dhadiwal, 2012).
Asthe ambulance approaches the traffic, it transmits an emergency codethat is received by the receiver. The other signals are immediatelyswitched off making all other signals red and leaving the directiongreen. The diagram displays usage of wireless sensor networks used inmonitoring traffic system and gathering information on incomingtraffic flow. The sensor nodes are small and consume low energy(Dhadiwal, 2012). They run on battery power and solar energy. In casea vehicle gets an accident an alert message is sent immediately tothe nearing ambulance. The signals are also transmitted to signalsbetween vehicle position and ambulance to allow RF communicationbetween traffic section and ambulance. The vibration sensor observesvehicle accident and microcontroller receives it. The near ambulanceis received from PC as it relays the message to the ambulance. RFcommunication conveys signal to traffic signal segment.
Q.3(c). Human-computer interface
Thisis the communication point between computers and human users definedas loop of interaction. It has aspects such as visual based and audiobased that enables acquiring of information through differentsignals. Task environment, machine environment, which is the areaconnected to the computer like laptop, and interface areas do notoverlap. Input flow begins from task environment where users havetasks that require usage of computers. Output of informationoriginates from machine environment. Feedback loops evaluate,confirm, and moderate passage of information from the time it passesfrom human beings through interface to the computer and back again.This ensures there is a match between computer design, user, andoptimization tasks.
HCIenables users to tailor their applications to their needs and usepower in invention of new applications depending on theirunderstanding of personal domains (Carroll, 2016). Users have deeperunderstanding of domains at the expense of generic systemprogrammers.
HCIenables passage of information to all objects found by users.Embedded systems create new environments with automated processes andminimal computations. These include cooking appliances that arecomputerized, automobile braking systems among others.
Human-computerinteraction shapes the nature of future computing through reducingpower requirement that leads to portability as well as hardwareminiaturization. Its new display technologies enable packaging ofcomputational devices. Special functioning hardware enablesperformance of new functions. It has increased in its networkdevelopment and distributed computing. It has enabled increase ofcomputer use by people away from computing profession (Carroll,2016).
HCIcomputers communicate through local networks with high speed coveringwide-area networks. It has incorporated technologies such asultrasound, cellular, and ultrasonic. Its systems are highlyfunctional.
HCIsystems have wide variety of computer graphics like image processing,iterative animation, and graphics transformations. They are availedin forms of inexpensive chips and included in mobile devices andworkstations.
Mixedmedia services incorporates commercial analysis which handles images,video, text, voice and formatted data, which can be exchanged throughuser communication links. HCI has high-bandwidth interaction becauseof its high speed, new media, emerging output input devices, computergraphics among others (Carroll, 2016). It has enabled usage of thinand large displays technologies which use low power. As a result,portability is improved through creation of pen-based computerinteraction systems. Information utilities like home banking andshopping have accelerated due to introduction of high-bandwidthinteraction and improvement of quality.
Carroll,J. (2016). Humancomputer interaction-brief intro.Retrieved fromhttps://www.interaction-design.org/literature/book/the-encyclopedia-of-human-computer-interaction-2nd-ed/human-computer-interaction-brief-intro
Cockton,G. (2016). Usabilityevaluation.Retrieved fromhttps://www.interaction-design.org/literature/book/the-encyclopedia-of-human-computer-interaction-2nd-ed/usability-evaluation
Dhadiwal,P. (2012). Intelligentambulance with automatic traffic control.Retrieved fromhttp://www.engineersgarage.com/contribution/intelligent-ambulance-automatic-traffic-control
IMGD4000.(n.d). Humancomputer interaction (User interfaces) for games.Retrieved from
Kumar,R. (2014). Intelligenceambulance project report.Retrieved fromhttp://www.slideshare.net/RiteshKumar150/intelligence-ambulance-project-report