Iwas able to observe the child interactions with other kids. I managedto see the difference of the child behaviors and the signs ofindependence. This was my first observation, and I was anxious abouthow the subject would react after realizing she was being examined.On June 20, 2016, around 11:30 am, my observation took place duringrecess at a playground. The child that I observed was a female withbrown hair and brown eyes, and she is seven years old. I observed herabout forty-five minutes at the playground to see how the childreacted when she is playing games with other kids. She is energeticas most of seven years old are. The day was hot and beautiful, andthe playground was full of children who engaged in a range ofactivities. I took advantage of this fantastic weather to do myobservation. The activities that they had in the playground were likea free play. About five or six adults were supervising the children.The types of activities that they have on the playground includedbasketball, baseball, hula-hoops, jump ropes, hopscotch, bounceballs, slides, races, and swings. However, she can play whateversports she is interested.
Iobserved some girls playing jump rope at the corner. After one personhad done, they took turns and counted how many they can do. It washer first game that young girl chose to play, and she was verysocially interactive with other girls. She did wait until it was herturns to go and she was very patient with it. She and the girlsseemed like they were having fun playing jump rope. After she playedjump rope, she quickly joined in to play hula hoop and spinningaround her waist. When she was trying to spin the hula hoop aroundher waist, it didn`t even last for 30 seconds to turn. I would havethought that she would get frustrated for not able to spin around herwaist. I was very impressed that she didn`t get mad or frustrated. At the corner, there were like four or five children were sittingdown on the bench, and they were watching other kids playingactivities.
WhileI observed, there were some girls and boys playing basketball. Theteam just dribbled the ball, and it was evident there were no rulesfor basketball. The kids would pass and shoot it on the court. It wasapparent that the girl could get along with the team. Besides, shecould wait until it was her turn to shoot the ball. After the hulahoop, she quickly joined the basketball. She was playing with thegirls and boys. I see that she was getting along with them by passingthe ball and waiting for her turns to shoot the ball. She was takingturns to sliding down the slide and how she was bond with them. Aftera while, I noticed some other children were playing hopscotch. Shewalks towards them and asks if she can join their game.
Duringmy observation, I focused on the following domains of childdevelopment. The main domains are physical, cognitive, psychosocial,emotional, and moral. The girl is at the middle childhood level ofphysical development, begins at six through eleven years old. Duringthe stage, children’s strength and athletic capabilities improve(Papalia & Martorell, 2014, pg. 8). She was energetic, calm andloved to play with her peers. Specifically, she indicated a highlevel of physical activity through her interest in a variety ofgames. It was observable that she could Jump rope, hopscotch, hulahoop, slide, run, climb and dribble the basketball. The young ladydid not indicate any signs of developmental spurts, delays ordeclining ability. Instead, the child is shown that she wasindependent as she walked around the playground without mindingwhether she was being watched. Besides, her ability to change fromone game to the other indicated that she was self-confident
Duringthe observation, I did not see her misbehaving. I did not see hershowing any signs of aggression, and or frustration towards otherchildren. I would say she was a really happy and calm child, sheloved talking and playing with her friends. She appears to engagevery well, and she had fun with other kids, which was amazing to me.She is very energetic, polite, cheerful, and friendly. She didn`tseem very shy towards other children to play games with them. She isextremely competitive when she is playing with other children. If Idid see her misbehave, I probably would have seen her pushing,fighting, punching, and crying. Besides, she observed the rules invarious games. While I observed her, she did not notice me. She isobserved to be independent as she can walk around the playground.
Inpsychosocial development, friends are becoming more important forthem. The child learned how to engage in group play and share withher things. She mostly plays with her friends with the same gender.While I did observe, I saw that she asked the kids if she can join inthe activity. She showed that she is engaged very well with otherchildren and had fun playing together. She enjoys talking to otherkids.
Emotionallyshe is observed to be independent as she can walk around freelywithout getting help. Moreover, there is no difficulty in herexpression. She is expressive and good at expressing herself. Facialexpression is observed as maturely since she tries to smile at anytime she is amused to show her pleasure.
ErickErikson`s had eight stages of Psychosocial Development. The stage ofpsychosocial development that best describes of a seven years oldgirl is the fourth stage, which is industry vs. inferiority with avirtue of competence. The stage occurs in children aged between sixto eleven years. (Papalia & Martorell, 2014, pg. 276). The stagewas depicted by the girl’s competent behavior as she played withher colleagues. Besides, she portrayed a sense of self-awareness asshe moved from one game to the other. Her movement showed she wasaware of her interests and the fact that she could play any game thatappeared impressive. Besides, the girl was in control of her moralssince she did not misbehave nor show any signs of aggression orfrustration to her peers. In fact, when she failed at spinning thehula-hoop, the girl did not indicate any signs of frustrations.
JeanPiaget`s had four stages of cognitive development. The stage ofcognitive development that best describes the girl is the thirdconcrete operational stage. The stage begins at the age of seventhrough to the age of eleven years. The concrete operational stage ofdevelopment is characterized as "children can think logicallybecause they can take multiple aspects of a situation into account"(Papalia & Martorell, 2014, pg. 268). The girl’s cognitiveabilities were depicted when she was playing jump rope. She was quickto identify that the team members took turns after each other. Shewas socially interactive with the other girls and waited patientlyfor her turn to play. Besides, when she joined the children whoplayed basketball, she seemed to get along. She could easily pass toher teammates and wait for her time to shoot the ball to the court.She also indicated patience as she waited for her turn to slide. Thecritical task at the stage is the ability of individuals to thinklogically and deliberate multiple sides of a situation. The girlcould create friends and engage in groups. She mostly played withfriends of the same gender. The ability to think logically is bestdepicted when the girl asked other kids if she could join them intheir game. She was able to engage with her friends and had funplaying together. Specifically, she loved talking to other children.Besides, she did not have any problems in generating problems solvingstrategies. She used social techniques to resolve conflicts, unlikeother kids. The girl considered outcomes of committing variousactions. For example, she stopped another girl from pulling herfriend from the climbing rings. I observed that she reduced thenumber of aggressive acts in the play ground.
InAbraham Maslow`s hierarchy of needs considered of five needs includedphysiological needs, safety needs, love needs, esteem needs, andself-actualization needs. The hierarchy theory signified as apyramid, with lower levels representing the lower needs, and the toppoint on behalf of the need for self-actualization (Putallaz etal.,2016. p.63). The first is physiological needs, which is food, water,sleep, and shelter. The physiological needs are very important tosurvive. Without no food and water then the children would not havethe energy to play games. She was able to join different activities,such as jump rope, hopscotch, hula hoop, slide, and basketball. Shemust eat food before she comes in the playground for her to have toomuch energy to able to play with other kids. In the playground, thereis water fountain for a child who needs water to drink. All theactivities that she did participate, of course, the child must bethirsty for all the running around on the playground.
Beingan observer in the playground, gave me the opportunity to view thechild will engage in peers. Observation is a way to find out what thechild is interested in playing and how they behave in certainsituations. I thoroughly enjoyed the experience of observing thechild, and I get the chance to see how she interacted with otherkids.
Emotionallyshe is said to be independent because she can walk around freelywithout getting any assistance. Moreover, there is no difficulty inher expression. Besides, her facial expression can be said to be ofmaturely since she intends to smile anytime she is amused to show herpleasure. The child was also emotional when she lost a race. Thedynamical and theories are the theoretical perspectives taken towardemotional development in a child. The child’s encounter within thefield environment can be seen as a dynamic transaction that composedof multiple emotions and other related components. For instance, thisis depicted in, action tendencies, expressive behavior, social andexperimental and feelings physical context. The social experience,including the cultural context, reflects the development in childemotionally. From this case study, the emotional development may beconsidered a bio-ecological framework that regards the child as adynamic system embedded within the school community context. Moderatecontrol is used to solve problems rather than aggressiveness. Thecontrol is appraised as minimal, and distancing strategies are used.The expressive behavior shows appreciation of norms whether genuineor dissembled. She uses the expressive behavior to modulaterelationship dynamics. For example, she has an expressive behavior ofsmiling when reproaching friends. There is also development of aclose relationship with friends. This is aided by engagement indifferent games. It helps in creating awareness of multiple emotionsin the child. Emotional functioning in the girl is high because thedegree to which it serves self- efficacious and the adaptive goals ofthe girl are productive. The set of emotional constructs emerges ascognitive development and temperament as the girl develops in thesocial context. Moreover, emotional competencies are also influencedby the learning process. This implies that the child emotions arecreated by the combination of the cognitive developmental structureand social exposure to emotional discourse. This process means tofeel something and does something about it.
Cognitiveis a natural mental process of growth perceptions. The girl canacquire knowledge on how to play the various games. This increasesthe problem-solving ability of the kid. The girl showed a logicalorganization of thought and concrete problem solving. The play is animportant aspect that helps in developing a logical thought. Thechild has the cognitive ability to understand the world around her.There are instrumental developmental aspects in the girl that areportrayed by how she interacts with her friends.
TheStage of Cognitive Development Subjective
Thereare two distinct types of aggressors, namely proactive and reactive.It is possible to study these types of aggressors’ in the socialsituations by utilizing Dodge’s Social Information ProcessingModel. A child response to a social problem is linked to sixcognitive processes (Shaffer & David, 2015 p. 281). From mydeduction, I observed that the girl was subjective to generatingproblem-solving strategies.
Effectof the level of Cognitive Development
Iobserved that the cognitive level had a positive effect on socialproblem-solving techniques in the girl’s character. She solvedproblems using less aggressive techniques (Putallaz et al, 2016p.68). She may be considered as a reactive aggressor. The girldemonstrated high levels of retaliatory aggression because she viewedher peer’s aggressions as malicious.
Inpsychological observation, I observed the girl engage in a raceacross the rings with another child she lost the race and fell tothe ground. She immediately started to cry and called herself aloser. I pulled her up and tried to find out what was wrong. Heclaimed that she was a loser because she didn’t win the race. Sheinsisted that she has never won even a single race, and all herfriends think that she is a loser. However, the girl performed wellin other games. I explained to her that she lost the race because shehad been involved in other games. I tried to reassure her that she isnot a loser. She continued to cry even after her friends came overand tried to get her to play. I tried to tell her that her friendswere requesting her to play, but she just sat in the sand sobbing.She later got up and walked away from me and started to search forher friends. She later engaged in other games with her friends. Iobserved that the girl is psychologically prepared as a winner. Thisis why she cried after she lost the race. I admire this character inthe girl. The child mental development presupposes a mesh of network,by which the external and internal factors are intertwined together.This makes it possible to unravel their different roles. Thedevelopmental phases of the girl are influenced by the internalfactors. In the play, the child repeats impressions of the events hehas just experienced.
Thechild had good morals, and she was not associated with bad behaviors.The child portrayed the golden moral rule. She treated others likeshe would want others to treat her. She was able to think through anaction before doing it. The girl did not express any bad impressions.Moreover, she was able to saturate her mind with positive ideas. Shemanaged to understand the difference between the right and the wrong.Parents have the key influence in child morals.
Papalia,D. E., & Martorell, G. (2014). Experiencehuman development.New York: McGraw Hill Higher Education.
Shaffer,David R. (2015). Social & Personality Development (4thed.).Belmont, CA:Wadsworth: Thomas Learning.
Putallaz,Martha, & Wasserman, Aviva. (2016).Children’s entry behavior.In S.R.Asher & J. D. Coie (Eds.), Peer rejection in childhood(pp. 60-76). Cambridge,England: Cambridge University Press.