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U.S.Domestic Issues and the World

The U.S. government has manifested a keen understanding of the roleof culture in diplomatic relations. During the early 20thcentury, programs such as the Smith College Junior Year and theDelaware Foreign Study Plan sent hundreds of American undergraduatesto further studies in France (Walton 255). After World War I, theAmerican government adopted policies aimed at spreading the country’sproducts, practices, and ideas to Europe and other areas. Previously,the government lent support to private programs of cultural transferor exchange. Nevertheless, a national policy was established in thelate 1930s to focus more on cultural relations (Walton 258). In lateryears, the U.S. exported its domestic labor and racial practices toCaribbean nations such as Guatemala (Colby 599). Consequently,American internationalism sought to promote the country`s interestsby imposing its values and ideas upon other nations.

In 1924, the Rogers Act was enacted to professionalize and reform theForeign Service (Wood 142). Subsequently, administrative changes tookshape in the form of allowances for entertainment and rent. Suchmodifications were made upon realization of the important role playedby the wives of American diplomats. Also, the Rogers Act instituted aForeign Service Personnel Board that was tasked with evaluating theperformance of each diplomat. Service officers were assessed based onthe perceived strengths and weaknesses of their wives

Social and cultural factors have been touted as having the mostprofound effects on international relations. Other events such as thedisintegration of the Soviet Union and the conclusion of the Cold Warhad a minimal comparative impact (Guthrie-Shimizu 637). In thisregard, technological innovations such as fiber optics and satellitecommunication set the tone for globalization. In the late 20thcentury, American capital had a significant contribution to thedevelopment of both social and information revolutions. Inparticular, multinational corporations such as Nike commoditizedsports heroes in a manifestation of global capitalism(Guthrie-Shimizu 638).

Indeed, American internationalism endeavored to promote the country’sculture by imposing its practices on other nations. This wasmanifested through the sending of American students to France. Theexportation of labor practices to Guatemala also served to propagateAmerican culture. Furthermore, the desire to enhance the country’sinfluence led to the enactment of the Rogers Act. Moreover, theglobalization phenomenon owes its origin to American capital andtechnological innovations.

Works Cited

Colby, Jason M. “Banana Growing and Negro Management”: Race,Labor, and Jim Crow Colonialism in Guatemala, 1884–1930. DiplomaticHistory, 30.4 (2006): 595-621. Print.

Guthrie-Shimizu, Sayuri. “For Love of the Game: Baseball in EarlyU.S.-Japanese Encounters and the Rise of a Transnational SportingFraternity.” Diplomatic History, 28.5 (2004): 637-662.Print.

Walton, Whitney. “Internationalism and the Junior Year Abroad:American Students in France in the 1920s and 1930s.” DiplomaticHistory, 29.2 (2005): 256-278. Print.

Wood, Molly M. “Diplomatic Wives: The Politics of Domesticity andthe &quotSocial Game&quot in the U.S. Foreign Service, 1905-1941.”Journal of Women`s History, 17.2 (2005): 142-165. Print.

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Reliable statistics estimate that the richest 2% of the world’spopulation own more than half of the total wealth. On the other hand,the poorest half of the world’s population own less than 1% oftotal wealth (Eitzen, Zinn, and Smith). Furthermore, globalpopulation increases by one million people every four days. Poorercountries have higher birth and growth rates than wealthier nations.Governments in developing countries are hard-pressed to provideemployment opportunities and public amenities to their citizens. Theincrease in crime rates also creates cause for public concern. Inthis regard, activities related to private morals should be legalizedso as to provide tax revenues and reduce the incidence of crime.

In many cultures, women are charged with child-bearing andhome-making responsibilities (Abrams 181). Men are mostly concernedwith providing for the material needs of the family. Also, women insociety have traditionally had little control over their bodies(Abrams 182). Teenage delinquents and rape victims have also beenexpected to carry their unplanned pregnancies to term. Females thatpursue abortion have been abused and banished (Abrams 184). Illegalabortion clinics have been set up to service women who elect toterminate their pregnancies. The illicit nature of such operationshas led to numerous deaths of women (Abrams 186). Despite theinherent risks and moral implications, some conscientious individualsare hell-bent on undergoing abortion. If the practice were legalized,more lives would be saved since appropriate safety measures would betaken. Proper incorporation of abortion clinics would also hinderunscrupulous doctors from taking advantage of desperate women. Thegovernment would also obtain substantial tax revenues fromestablishments that perform abortions.

In the 19th century, the use of family planning methodssuch as contraceptives was viewed as barbaric (Panu 122). The naturalprocess of life and death was deemed supreme to man-made techniques.In fact, using contraceptives was tantamount to playing God (Panu154). Since the prevalent methods were utilized contrary to statelaw, wrong use led to serious consequences (Panu 158). However,birth-control techniques became widely adopted in the 20thcentury. For example, India was recognized as the first nation toembrace family planning in 1951 (Eitzen et al.). Reputableinstitutions such as the United Nations, World Health Organization,and UNICEF developed and funded programs of reproductive health andfamily planning (Eitzen et al.). Consequently, governmentalauthorities have amassed plenty of revenues from pharmaceuticalgiants manufacturing birth control pills and other family planningmedication. Prospective couples have also been safeguarded againstexploitation from scheming manufacturers desiring to make a profit.

Same-sex unions have caused plenty of debate due to polarizedopinions. In the U.S., about 3.5% of the population classifythemselves as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Additionally, 11% of thecitizens profess to same-sex attraction while 8.2% have previouslyengaged in homosexual behavior (Eitzen et al.). A national surveyshowed that the majority of the country`s residents had majorreservations about same-sex marriages. Many service members havesuffered the indignity of being discharged from the military due totheir sexual orientation (Liebelson and Terkel). Furthermore, 14-43%of gay and lesbian couples have experienced unrelenting periods ofharassment owing to their sexual preferences (Eitzen et al.). In someareas, homosexuals have become the target of vicious attacks andscathing propaganda.

Notably, the U.S. Supreme Court legalized gay marriages in 2015(Liebelson and Terkel). Adopting such a law has empowered andemboldened homosexuals to overcome the stigma associated withsame-sex unions. The government has received taxes and otherroyalties from insurance benefits owing to gay and lesbian couples.In addition, the violence and discrimination leveled againsthomosexuals would subside and eventually stop. Indeed, activitiessuch as abortion, family planning, and same-sex unions may seemprivate and confidential. Nevertheless, they should be legalized toprovide tax revenue and reduce criminal incidents.

Works Cited

Abrams, Paula. “The Bad Mother: Stigma, Abortion and Surrogacy.”The Journal of Law, Medicine &amp Ethics, 43.2 (2015):179-191. Print.

Eitzen, Stanley, Maxine Baca Zinn, and Kelly Eitzen Smith. SocialProblems. 13th ed. Upper Saddle River: Pearson, 2013.Print.

Liebelson, Diana, and Amanda Terkel. “Supreme Court Legalizes GayMarriage Nationwide.” Huffington Post. 26 Jun. 2015. Web. 26Jun. 2016.

Panu, Mihnea. Contextualizing family planning: Truth, subject, andthe other in the U.S. government. New York: Palgrave Macmillan,2009. Print.

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2. Discuss theideas of Roger Williams as reflected in his &quotA Letter to theTown of Providence,&quot written in 1655, as forerunners of theseparation of church and state that was established as the coloniesbecame a nation.

In his letter, Roger Williams emphasized the common destiny shared byall men, regardless of their religion. He stated that there could be“many hundred souls in one ship, whose weal and woe is common”(Founder’s Constitution). Furthermore, he suggested that thefreedom of choice concerning the form of travel or religionrepresented &quota true picture of a Commonwealth.&quotConsequently, it was highly likely that different groups of &quotPapistsand Protestants, Jews and Turks” could be gathered in one vessel.In such a scenario, Williams argued that none of these groups shouldbe “compelled from their own particular prayers or worship.”Respect for “the liberty of conscience” would also require thatnone of the passengers be forced to attend the “ship’s prayers ofworship” (Founder’s Constitution).

Nevertheless, Williams recognized and upheld the ship commander’sright to determine “the ship’s course.” The commander also hadthe mandate to demand that all seamen and passengers practice“justice, peace, and sobriety.” In this regard, Williams listedseveral unacceptable forms of conduct on the part of sailors andpassengers. For example, seamen were obligated “to perform theirservices” while passengers had “to pay their freight.” Eachperson was equally bound by the “common laws and order of theship.” Besides, the commanders and officers on the ship had to beaccorded due honor. Rising or speaking against the ship’s officerswas an intolerable offense. Williams believed that everyone on thevessel was “equal in Christ.” In addition, he held that thecommanders could ‘judge, resist, compel and punish suchtransgressors, according to their deserts and merits” (Founder’sConstitution).

Therefore, Williams succeeded in establishing clear boundariesbetween state and church. Indeed, his letter served as a forerunnerto the ultimate separation of church and state. Political powers andother leaders had no right to dictate or interfere with the religiouspractices of their subjects. A state religion could not be imposedthrough any means such as elevating one form of faith above another.On the other hand, the state had the right to maintain law and order.All citizens were required to abide by the established laws andstatutes notwithstanding their religious affiliation.

4. Discuss thearguments Samuel Sewell used against slavery in &quotThe Selling ofJoseph,&quot published in 1700, as a forerunner of the anti-slaveryargument in the &quotNew World&quot which would eventuallyculminate in the Civil War.

Samuel Sewell presented a passionate disclaimer against the incidenceof slavery. He believed that no individual had the right to “depriveothers” of liberty. Sewell was compelled to speak out due to the“numerousness” and “uneasiness” of slaves under compulsion towork. He also realized that many other people had been “thinkingwhether the foundation” of slavery was firm and well-laid.Furthermore, Sewell was convinced that all men were &quotsons ofAdam&quot and hence coheirs with an &quotequal right unto libertyand all other outward comforts of life” (Onion). He interlaced hisarguments with Scriptural quotations. For example, he referenced Acts17:26 to prove that God had made all nations of men from the originalcouple, Adam and Eve. Moreover, their children had been granted equalopportunity to own and cultivate as much as land as they deemed fit.

Although Joseph`s jealous siblings traded him to merchants, heexperienced a dramatic reversal of fortunes. In fact, his brotherswere at his mercy when they later traveled to Egypt in search of foodsupplies at the peak of widespread famine. Sewell pointedly refutedseveral views that had been adopted in support of slavery. The firstview held that “blackamores” were the “posterity of Cham, andtherefore under the curse of slavery” (Onion). In response, Sewellnoted that the “extent and duration” of God’s vindictive wrathwere “to us uncertain.” He also highlighted “that a propheticaldenunciation of judgment against a person or people would not warrantthem to inflict that evil.” Canaan had been “cursed three timesover, without the mentioning of Cham” (Onion). Moreover,Blackamores had descended from Cush, not Canaan. Therefore, thedivinely uttered curse did not justify the enslavement of particularethnic groups.

Some people contended that slavery freed people from pagan countries“into places where the Gospel is preached.” Nevertheless, Sewellmade reference to Joseph’s mistreatment at the hands of hisscheming brothers when stating that evil could not be used toaccomplish good. In addition, others claimed that slaves were littlemore than “lawful captives” taken in wars. However, he pinpointedthat “an unlawful war can’t make lawful captives.” Failure toapply the Golden Rule of Scripture would be tantamount to partakingin “barbarous cruelties.” Some proponents of slavery noted thatAbraham had “servants bought with his money” (Onion).Nonetheless, Sewell replied that the “circumstances of Abraham’spurchase” were not recorded. Since the Israelites were “strictlyforbidden” from trading slaves, he reiterated that slavery had tobe unconditionally discontinued.

6. Discuss AnneBradstreet’s witness to the hardships of early colonial life andher Puritan beliefs.

Before the Birth of One of Her Children by Anne Bradstreetpresents the difficulties associated with early colonial life. Thepoem also outlines the disquieting thoughts associated with Puritanbeliefs. In particular, Bradstreet laments the inevitability ofdeath. She states that “all things within this fading world hathend” (Bradstreet). The poet is disillusioned by the apparentcapability of “adversity” to trounce all joy. Also, death has apermanent stranglehold on human life in that it’s “parting blowis sure to meet.” Bradstreet is saddened to contemplate that evenstrong ties and dear friendships lack the potency to counter thepower of death. Her Puritan beliefs are evident when she refers toher predicament as a “sentence” that “is most irrevocable”(Bradstreet). In this regard, she alludes to the judgment that waspassed onto the first woman upon disobeying God. Therefore, she isresigned to her fate of enhanced pain during childbirth and theheightened risk of subsequent death. In the poet’s estimation,death is not only “common” but also “inevitable”(Bradstreet).

Bradstreet’s fear of dying during childbirth was a reasonableconcern during early colonial life. At that time, women had a lowerlife expectancy compared to men. In fact, the increased likelihood ofdeveloping fatal complications contributed to high death rates duringchildbirth. She addresses her husband as her “dear” and regretsthat he would lose his “friend” in case she succumbed to death.Although Bradstreet imagines “how soon” she would die, sheacknowledges that they were “both ignorant” with regards toprecise timing.

Nevertheless, the poet uses the poem to serve as a farewell to herhusband &quotwhen that knot`s untied that made us one&quot(Bradstreet). If she has to forfeit half of her days, her wish isthat God grant them to her husband. The poet also wishes that her“many faults” be interred in her “oblivious grave.” Granted,she remains hopeful that her virtues would “live freshly” in herhusband’s memory. However, Bradstreet does not restrict her husbandfrom remarrying to alleviate his “grief” and “loss.” Such arealization reflects the Puritan view of women as family custodians.Despite her absence, the husband was obligated to nurture her “littlebabes” while safeguarding her “dear remains” from “step Damesinjury” (Bradstreet). Contemplating her probable death causedplenty of sentiment and sadness.

7. DiscussMichael Wigglesworth`s vision of &quotThe Day of Doom,&quot itswarnings and ultimate offer of comfort based on scripture.

The Day of Doom by Michael Wigglesworth relates extensivedetails about the fabled Judgment Day. The poet warns about theseeming peace and security that would engulf the world beforejudgment. Stillness, serenity, and calmness would lull many peopleinto a spiritual slumber. Scriptural passages are referenced so as toestablish a sequence of events leading to Judgment Day. Wigglesworthwarns the people “wallowing in all kind of sin” to learn from thediligence and preparedness of the ten virgins. Imminent destructionwould occur suddenly while “men sleep fast in their security”(Wigglesworth).

The poet describes the fear and trembling that would characterizesinners upon the revelation of Son of God “who with his train comeson amain to judge both quick and dead” (Wigglesworth). Theglorified Jesus is described with a mighty voice that causes “hideousnoise more terrible than thunder.” Also, his radiance dampensheaven’s “glorious lamps.” Several groups of people arementioned as viable for impending destruction. These individualsinclude ridiculers, atheists, “stout courages,” potentates,powerful states, “captains, and men of might.” Dreadful thoughtswould paralyze “mean men” and lead to horrible despair, &quotweepingeyes, and loud outcries&quot (Wigglesworth). Although some would“hide themselves in caves and delves,” no hiding place wouldsuffice to keep the executioner at bay. Further warnings are providedwith descriptions of smoking mountains, shaking hills, roaring seas,and fleeing wild beasts.

The poet provides comfort to righteous individuals by highlightingtheir transformation “to immortality” as they are made to die nomore. Such upright persons include holy martyrs and those adjudged as“sheep.” Individuals who suffered shame, woe, and calamity forthe sake of Christ would revel in their crowning glory. Inparticular, they would “sit on thrones” and judge the world.Henceforth, they would enjoy living devoid of fears, cares, andtears. On the other hand, the “goats” would include apostates,insincere ones, and hypocrites. The latter group “must be painedwith everlasting fire” along with the dragon and his “legions ofsprights” (Wigglesworth). Several groups of hypocrites may attemptto list excuses as they seek mercy. Nevertheless, Christ will exposetheir folly and assign them to destruction. Consequently, The Dayof Doom contrasts the gloomy future in store for evil people withthe bright prospects of the righteous.

Works Cited

Bradstreet, Anne. Before the Birth of One of Her Children. PoetryFoundation. Web. 21 Jun. 2016.

Onion, Rebecca. “Caveat Emptor!”: The First Anti-Slavery PamphletPublished in New England. Slate. 22 May 2015. Web. 21 Jun.2016.

The Founder’s Constitution. Amendment I (Religion): Roger Williamsto the Town of Providence. Web. 21Jun. 2016.

Wigglesworth, Michael. The Day of Doom. 21 Jun. 2016.

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Everyday Use by Alice Walker presents the story of two girls,Dee and Maggie, as told by their mother. Maggie resides with hermother while Dee comes home to visit while accompanied by a Muslimgentleman. Mama juxtaposes her daughters based on their upbringingand temperament. She also describes her illiteracy along with thefamily`s dilapidated house. Maggie is physically deformed and ruggedwhile Dee is beautiful and intellectually gifted. The family settlesfor dinner after Dee`s arrival. Subsequently, Dee states herintentions to acquire the churn, dasher, and quilts. In response,Mama objects and claims that the quilts were intended for Maggie.Alice Walker’s “Everyday Use” suggests that heritage is meantto be a heartwarming presence rather than something to be displayedas art.

Dee viewed her ancestry as an aspect of her African roots as opposedto family ties. She visited her mother and sister while adorning “adress down to the ground, in this hot weather” (McMahan 157). Mamanoted that Dee had “a dress so loud it hurts my eyes. There areyellows and oranges enough to throw back the light of the sun”(McMahan 157). Her preference for African roots is also shown in her“earrings gold…hanging down to her shoulders. Bracelets danglingand making noises when she moves her arm up to shake the folds of thedress out of her armpits” (McMahan 157). In addition, Dee hadadopted a hairstyle different from the norm. Mama highlighted thatDee’s hair “stands straight up like the wool on a sheep. It isblack as night and the edges are two long pigtails that rope aboutlike small lizards disappearing behind her ears” (McMahan 158).Moreover, Dee showed her adoption of African roots by adopting thename “Wangero Leewanika Kemanjo” (McMahan 158). In herenlightened perspective, her previous name was “dead” because she“couldn’t bear it any longer, being named after the people whooppress me” (McMahan 158). Dee’s conversion to African rootsdisplayed her aversion to the family’s heritage. Consequently, shedid not enjoy the company of her family as much as acquiring items.

Furthermore, Dee had a hypocritical view of culturally significantitems. When the original house burnt, Mama had wanted to ask Dee tohave a celebratory dance because her daughter hated the house.Although Maggie had been hurt in the fire, Dee was insensitive to thedamage. Therefore, Mama feared that the new house would alsodisplease Dee such that she would desire to raze it to the ground.However, upon her arrival, Dee ensured that “she never takes a shotwithout making sure the house is included. When a cow comes nibblingaround the edge of the yard she snaps it and me and Maggie and thehouse” (McMahan 158). During her visit, she made every effort tocapture the house in her photographs. Moreover, Dee had previouslythreatened never to bring any of her friends to visit. Nevertheless,she was accompanied by a chubby man named Hakim-a-barber. Mamarevealed that she had offered the quilts to Dee before she went tocollege. In response, Dee had labeled the items as “old-fashioned,out of style” (McMahan 160). Such inconsistencies betray her warpedview of ancestral roots. They also display her alienation from thefamily’s heritage.

Regrettably, Dee sought to acquire ancestral items to use them asartistic props. Mama mentioned that “after dinner Dee went to thetrunk at the foot of my bed and started rifling through it”(McMahan 159). She had developed an obsession with acquiring itemsthat seemed to portray her heritage. In this regard, she stated thatshe could “use the churn top as a centerpiece for the alcove table”(McMahan 159). Consequently, she failed to realize the connectionbetween the churn and Uncle Buddy’s ingenuity. Furthermore, Deeremarked that she would “think of something artistic to do with thedasher” (McMahan 159). Displaying the dasher as art ignored its usefor making butter while understating its cultural significance.During her pursuit of the hand-made quilts, Dee plainly stated thatshe intended to “hang” (McMahan 160) them in her house.Therefore, she undermined her heritage as something to be displayed.

Additionally, Dee ridiculed and condemned the everyday use of quilts.Wangero had turned down Mama’s offer to acquire some of the otherquilts that were partly stitched by machine. In response, she statedthat the hand-made quilts were “all pieces of dresses Grandma usedto wear. She did all this stitching by hand. Imagine!’’ (McMahan160) Her contempt was evident in the fact that Mama and Big Dee hadmade the other quilts using pieces that were originally made by hergrandmother. Therefore, although the borders had been stitched bymachine, the quilts still represented family heritage. Dee manifestedher disdain for her family’s heritage when she quipped that “Maggiecan`t appreciate these quilts! She`d probably be backward enough toput them to everyday use” (McMahan 160). She claimed that thequilts were “priceless” (McMahan 160) and lamented how Maggie wasunworthy of them since she “would put them on the bed and in fiveyears they`d be in rags. Less than that!&quot (McMahan 160) Finally,she asserted that Mama did not “understand” her “heritage”(McMahan 161). While she enthused of having experienced “a new day”(McMahan 161), she told Maggie that “from the way you and Mamastill live you`d never know it&quot (McMahan 161). Therefore, Deelacked the proper perspective to appreciate her heritage through herscornful attitude towards her family.

Also, Asalamalakim shed important aspects of his culture in favor ofAfrican roots. Mama pinpointed that his hair hung all over his headand probably measured a foot long. Also, his beard was as large andunkempt as a small mule`s tail. He had an awkward moment while tryingto greet Maggie since he wanted to shake her hands in a fancy manner.Mama also speculated that he probably did not know how his in-lawsexchanged greetings. In comparison to Dee’s new name, Mama notedthat Asalamalakim’s name was not only twice as long but also threetimes as hard. He had altered his name to show his solidarity withAfrican roots instead of sticking to his family`s ancestry. Based onhis Muslim greeting, Mama supposed that he belonged to acattle-rearing community that lived in the neighborhood. However,Asalamalakim claimed that he accepted “some of their doctrines, butfarming and raising cattle is not my style” (McMahan 159). Whendinner was served, Mama realized that the family “sat down to eatand right away he said he didn’t eat collards and pork was unclean”(McMahan 159). Therefore, Asalamalakim’s deviation from hisancestral roots showed his disassociation from his family’sheritage.

On the other hand, Mama viewed her ancestry as the continuousadoption of customs from the past to subsequent generations. Whilediscussing the origin of Dee`s name, she stated that she &quotwasnot before `Dicie` cropped up in our family&quot (McMahan 158).Therefore, she did not need to &quottrace it that far back&quot(McMahan 158). Nevertheless, she was confident that the name could betraced back before the Civil War era. Such confidence betrays herconviction that Dee’s name was indeed ancestral as opposed tosomething that was adopted from the whites. While describingGrandma’s dresses, she noted that “some of the pieces like thoselavender ones, come from old clothes her mother handed down to her”(McMahan 160). The dresses represented her heritage since they hadbeen inherited across several generations. While discussing Maggie’severyday use of the quilts, she stated that “I reckon she would.God knows I been saving ‘em for long enough with nobody using ‘em.I hope she will” (McMahan 160). Therefore, Mama hoped that Maggiewould use the quilts and hence propagate the family’s heritage.

Besides, Maggie embraced her family ties as the sole determinant ofancestry. Mama remarked that “she can always make some more. Maggieknows how to quilt” (McMahan 160). Therefore, Maggie had graspedthe real meaning of family heritage. She had learned how to make thequilts just like her mother, aunt, and Grandma. Maggie also displayedher deep ancestral roots when she conceded that Dee could have thehand-made quilts. Such a generous offer was because Maggie could“‘member Grandma Dee without the quilts” (McMahan 160).Contrary to her sister, Maggie did not have to display the quilts soas to remember her heritage. Mastering the skill required to knit thequilts would enable her to have fond memories of her Grandma.Consequently, Maggie portrays the true meaning of heritage as theadoption of intangible cultural traits and attributes.

Furthermore, Maggie had spent considerable time with her mother,aunt, and grandmother. While she attempted to read something, Mamarevealed that Maggie was neither bright nor beautiful. In addition,she could not read fluently since her eyesight was less than ideal.Although she had not enjoyed the privilege of attending a prestigiousschool, she had adopted the most essential elements of her ancestralroots. In fact, &quotit was Grandma Dee and Big Dee who taught herhow to quilt herself” (McMahan 160). Her attention to detail ledDee to conclude that her sister’s brain could rival that of afull-grown elephant. Mama noted that Maggie walked like an animalthat had been maimed by a road accident. The fire had deflated herself-esteem and depleted her confidence. In this regard, Maggie feltas if she was not entitled to anything. Her sense of unworthiness wasevident when she suggested to Mama to grant Dee’s request to havethe quilts. Despite her scarred face and submissive personality,Maggie had an impending marriage to John Thomas. Contrary to hersister’s mate, Maggie’s fiancé would enable her to maintain herancestral roots while cherishing the family’s heritage.


Indeed, heritage is defined as a heartwarming experience rather thansomething to be displayed as household art. Dee’s conversion toAfrican roots is manifested in her dress, hair, ornaments, greeting,and name. She had sought to acquire the churn and the dasher fortheir artistic uses. Besides, she had preferred to obtain the quiltsso as to hang them on a wall. Nevertheless, Wangero turned down anearlier opportunity to have the quilts. On the other hand, Mamawanted Maggie to acquire the quilts as she used them in everydaylife. Mama valued the successive inheritance of knowledge acrossvarious generations as a way of preserving the family`s heritage.Therefore, Maggie had acquired the actual meaning of heritage sinceshe learned the skills necessary to make the quilts.

Work Cited

McMahan, Elizabeth et al. Literature and the writing process.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2014. Print.

Sir Name1

Chapter ONE

  1. Define Community, public, and global health

Community health entails the efforts of individuals, groups, and bothprivate and public organizations aimed at promoting, protecting, andpreserving the health of the people who belong to the sameneighborhood, school district, development or town. Public healthaddresses the threats to the health of individuals not only within atown but also in different continents. On the other hand, globalhealth entails the promotion, protection, and preservation of thehealth of individuals who inhabit different countries.

2. What current community health challenge are you currentlyconcerned with? Explain

For me, lifestyle diseases are my current health concern. Currently,a majority of Americans are obese, mostly as a result of immobilelifestyle. This condition puts individuals at the risk of lifestylediseases such as high blood pressure and diabetes. Poor lifestylehabits such as sitting for long hours causes more deaths than themost dreaded diseases such as HIV/AIDS and cancer.

3. What would you like to see done about the above communityhealth challenge?

I would like to see the enactment of legislations that will provideincentives for people to walk or use bicycles. I believe thegovernment spends a colossal amount of resources financing the healthcare cost of the lifestyle diseases, and this money can be used toensure that the number of patients suffering from these ailments goesdown. For instance, the government can subsidize the cost of bicyclesto ensure that almost all individuals in a household own at leastone. Also, the government can join hands with private agencies tocome up with a way of rewarding people who walk on their way to worksuch as with vacations a move geared toward cultivating a walkingculture.

4. Explain the preventable causes of death in the U.S.

Poor diet, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption are the threeleading causes of preventable deaths in America. The three factorshave a hand in more than a third of all deaths in America as they areresponsible for diseases such as high blood pressure, diabetes,stroke, cancer, and many more.

5. Discuss Michele Obama’ quote from the introduction.

The first part of Michele Obama’s quote from the introduction isall about youth idealism. Youth idealism entails young people beingthe change they want to see in their lives and their community. Onthe other hand, the second part of Michele Obama’s quote talksabout youth awareness which entails young people recognizing theirpotential in transforming their lives and also the lives of thosearound them.

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CriticalThinking Worksheet

1. In EverydayUse by Alice Walker, the narrator is identified as ‘Mama.’She is a mother of two daughters, Dee and Maggie. The adoring motheris a resilient woman who had overcome plenty of adversity and racialprejudice. She had raised her daughters despite her lack ofeducation. In fact, she remembered that “after second grade, theschool was closed down” (McMahan 157). The narrator has anon-confrontational personality. When Maggie inquired about herappearance, Mama avoided the question. Instead, she revealed to theaudience that Maggie walked like “a lame animal” (McMahan 156).Later, she also avoids prolonging the discussion concerning Dee’snew name even though she could “probably have carried it backbeyond the Civil War through the branches” (McMahan 158).

Her humility andreasonableness are strengths since they enable her to maintainpeaceful relations with her daughters. However, her fearful and timidnature had made her passive and indecisive. With regards tointeracting with white people, she could not imagine “looking astrange white man in the eye” (McMahan 155). It seems that pastinstances of racial discrimination had a massive impact on Mama’spersonality. She admits that “in 1927 colored asked fewer questionsthan they do now” (McMahan 157). It is significant that thenarrator is referred to as Mama throughout the story. In this regard,the writer emphasizes the narrator’s character of deflectingattention away from herself.

2. Walker choseMama as the narrator instead of Maggie or Dee due to several reasons.Firstly, selecting an independent narrator helped to highlight thedifferences between Maggie and Dee. Mama offers objective comparisonsbetween her two daughters when she notes that “Dee is lighter thanMaggie, with nicer hair and a fuller figure” (McMahan 156). Usingeither daughter as the narrator would have led to subjective andhence unreliable viewpoints of the other sister. Mama was also usedas the narrator so as to provide crucial family background to whichneither of the girls had been privy. For example, Mama compared thecurrent house to the one that burnt and noted that &quotthey don`tmake single roofs any more&quot (McMahan 157).

Telling the storyfrom the point of view of one of the daughters would have eliminateddetails about Mama’s past. Also, Dee would have failed to mentionMaggie’s impending marriage to John Thomas and how he had “mossyteeth in an earnest face” (McMahan 157). Consequently, Dee wouldhave been less willing to let her sister retain the hand-knit quilts.Furthermore, Walker used Mama as the narrator so as to juxtapose thedifferent effects of the house fire on the young girls. Maggie hadbeen scarred by the fire while Dee was indifferent since “she hadhated the house that much” (McMahan 156). On the other hand, usingeither daughter as the narrator would have presented a one-sidedperspective of the house fire.

3. Maggie and Deehave different character traits as portrayed in the story. Maggie wasmostly withdrawn and silent. Her mother acknowledged that Maggie had“been like this, chin on chest, eyes on ground, feet in shuffle,ever since the fire that burned the other house to the ground”(McMahan 156). Moreover, Maggie seems to be poorly educated inaddition to having bad eyesight. Her mother reveals that &quotsometimesMaggie reads to me. She stumbles along good-naturedly but can`t seewell. She knows she is not bright. Like good looks and money,quickness passed her by&quot (McMahan 157). Such misfortune rendersMaggie as an object to be pitied. I feel sorry for her since shesuffers due to circumstances beyond her control. Her misfortunedeflates her spirit and willpower such that she acts &quotlikesomebody used to never winning anything, or having anything reservedfor her&quot (McMahan 160). Nevertheless, her diligence is portrayedby the fact that she had learned how to quilt.

On the otherhand, Dee was proud and vindictive. She chose to use her knowledge totaunt her family for their limited education. Mama remembers when Deewould read to others “without pity forcing words, lies, otherfolks’ habits lives” (McMahan 156). Furthermore, Dee waspresumptuous in that she imbibed others with more knowledge than they“necessarily need to know” (McMahan 156). Dee was also oppressiveand hostile in her determination to acquire the quilts. In fact, Deequipped that “Maggie can’t appreciate these quilts! She’dprobably be backward enough to put them to everyday use” (McMahan160). She also looked at her mother “with hatred” (McMahan 160).Her hubris was clearly evident when she made the statement that herfamily would never realize any progress in the way they lived. Deewas also hypocritical in her decision-making. For example, she hadbeen offered the quilts while on her way to college but hadconsidered them as “old-fashioned, out of style” (McMahan 160).

4. Mama includesthe account about the fire so as to help the audience gain a betterunderstanding of her children`s personalities. It is noteworthy thatMaggie was deeply affected by the house fire. Mama notes that “shehas been like this, chin on chest, eyes on ground, feet in shuffle,ever since the fire that burned the other house to the ground”(McMahan 156). The house fire not only impeded her beauty but alsodestroyed her confidence and self-worth. On the other hand, the fireincident provides insight into Dee’s vindictive personality. Mamahad wanted to ask Dee to “do a dance around the ashes” since “shehad hated the house that much” (McMahan 156). Nevertheless, we donot know how the house caught fire. In any case, revealing suchdetail is not important since it has no bearing to the impact of thefire. As a first-person narrator, Mama has the discretion to excludedetails that are irrelevant to the overall message of the story. Asdiscussed, this past tragedy helps to explain the actions ofcharacters in the story.

5. The Africannames, dress, and hairstyles are used to show Dee’s changedmindset. Mama notices that Dee wore “a dress down to the ground. Adress so loud it hurts my eyes. There are yellows and oranges enoughto throw back the light of the sun” (McMahan 157). Besides, Dee’shair stood “straight up like the wool on a sheep. It is black asnight and around the edges are two long pigtails that rope about likesmall lizards disappearing behind her ears” (McMahan 158).Subsequently, she used an African greeting different from thecustomary greetings among African Americans. Furthermore, Dee changedher name to Wangero Leewanika Kemanjo claiming that “Dee is dead. Icouldn’t hear it any longer, being named after the people whooppress me” (McMahan 158). These changes showed her conversion fromher ethnicity to African heritage. Asalamalakim appears in the storyto demonstrate the extent of the cultural shift that Dee had embracedsince she left home. As a Muslim, Asalamalakim turns down the porkthat Mama had prepared for supper.

6. Dee wants thequilts so as to “hang them” (McMahan 160). She claims that thequilts are “priceless’ since they were “all pieces of dressesGrandma used to wear. She did all this stitching by hand. Imagine!”(McMahan 160) However, Mama gave them to Maggie since she “promisedto give them quilts to Maggie, for when she marries John Thomas”(McMahan 160).

7. The majorconflict in the story concerns who among the two girls understandsand appreciates family heritage. Dee had turned down an earlieropportunity to acquire the quilts by labeling them as “old-fashioned,out of style” (McMahan 160). She wanted the quilts so as to “hangthem” on a wall in her house (McMahan 160). On the other hand,Maggie had a better understanding of family heritage. She had learnedhow to knit like her grandmother. Also, she recognized the value ofthe quilts when she stated that she “can ‘member Grandma Deewithout the quilts” (McMahan 160). Therefore, Maggie had displayedgreater awareness for the cultural significance of the quilts withrespect to her family’s heritage.

Work Cited

McMahan, Elizabeth et al. Literature and the writing process.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2014. Print.