Factors Affecting Incidence Of Sexually Transmitted Infections

FactorsAffecting Incidence Of Sexually Transmitted Infections

FactorsAffecting Incidence Of Sexually Transmitted Infections

Everyday, people acquire Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI). Researchshows that each year, there are more than three thousand newinfections of STI such as Chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea,trichomoniasis,and herpes simplex virus (HSV) (Grossand Tyring, 2011).Unfortunately, the majority of STIs have mild or no symptoms hence,they are not easily diagnosed. Sadly, they have serious healthconsequences. Several factors affect the incidences of sexuallytransmitted infections. They include biological, social, economic,and behavioral factors.

Mostly,STIs are acquired through sexual intercourse with an infected person.Asymptomatic nature of STI, gender disparities, and age disparitiesare some of the biological factors that affect incidences of STIs. Asstated earlier, the majority of STIs have mild, or no signs andsymptoms. Accordingly, most infected people are not aware that theyneed medical attention. Based on gender disparities, STIs, and theircomplications affects women more than they affect men. Ectopicpregnancy, pelvic inflammatory, infertility, and chronic pelvic painare some of the serious STIs complications among women. Finally, agedisparities affect STI incidences. Young people, especially female,have a high vulnerability to infections due to their increasedcervical ectopy.

Grosset. al., (2011) statesthat spread of STIs has a direct connection with economic, social,and behavioral factors. Such factors cause obstacles in STIsprevention due to their influence on sexual networks, provision ofcare, social norms regarding sex, and willingness to seek care. Theyinclude racial and ethnic disparities, poverty and marginalization,and access to health care, among others. According to Gross et. al.,(2011), certain ethnic and racial groups such as Hispanic,African-American, and American-Indian are at high risk of acquiringSTIs compared to the Whites. Further, STIs disproportionately affectmarginalized, disadvantaged, and people living in poverty wherehigh-risk sexual behavior is a norm. Access to high-quality medicalcare is vital for early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of thesediseases. Regrettably, these people lack access to proper medicalcare, and in some cases, their health seeking behaviors areundermined.


Gross,G., &amp Tyring, S. K. (Eds.). (2011).&nbspSexuallytransmitted infections and sexually transmitted diseases.Springer Science &amp Business Media.


Factors affecting incidence of SexuallyTransmitted Infections

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Sexually transmitted infections are diseases commonly spread by sex,including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Most sexually transmitteddiseases do not cause symptoms. Through this, a greater risk existswhere the passing of the disease to others poses as a potentialpossibility(Stanberry &amp Rosenthal,2013). The signs and symptoms of these infections are usually verydistinct. They include penile and vaginal discharge, ulcers aroundthe genital region and above all, pelvic pain. Some of the causativeagents of these diseases include bacteria, viruses, andparasites(Stanberry &amp Rosenthal, 2013).Incidence is a term that gets used to mean the frequency or rate of adisease.It measures the occurrence of a given medical condition in apopulation within a specified period.

Some of the factors that affect the incidence of sexually transmittedinfections range from biologic, behavioral, and environmental tosocial factors. Biologically, the anatomy and immunologic status of ahost can affect the incidence of these diseases. For instance, thefemale reproductive system gets composed of various mucous membranesthat facilitate the transmission of sexually transmittedinfections(Stanberry &amp Rosenthal,2013). A host that has a compromised immunological status can getinfected at a higher rate than one with a well-functioning immunestatus.

Some host behaviors may affect the incidence of sexually transmittedinfections, for example, indulging in unprotected sex with infectedpersons, or coming into contact with body fluids, like in a casewhere one has an opening on the skin can lead to transmission of thedisease.

Socio-environmental factors that may affect the incidence of thesexually transmitted disease include, rural to urban migration, wheremost young people move to urban areas.In case they fail to get work,they result into prostitution thus increasing the incidence oftransmission. Literacy and educational level min the society alsoimpacts both positively and negatively on the frequency of thesediseases(Stanberry &amp Rosenthal, 2013).For instance, educated Individuals might have the know-how on issuesregarding protection while the illiterate might lack suchinformation, through this, the incidence might get affected.Inconclusion, it is evident that the impact of sexually transmittedinfections depends on some factors. Measures should get implementedto ensure that the incidence gets controlled.


Stanberry, L. R., &amp Rosenthal, S. N. (2013). Sexuallytransmitted diseases: Vaccines, prevention and control. London:Academic Press.