Extra Credit Assignments

ExtraCredit Assignments

  1. What are probable modes of transmission?

The ship had various activities that were most likely to act as theprobable modes of transmission. First, the water that the passengersused seems like one of the modes of transmission since it can containsome of the Salmonella Heidelberg that also has the ability tosurvive in water. Hence, anyone that drinks the water contaminatedwith bacteria is most likely to be infected with the infection aswell. Another most probable mode of transmission is the food handlingand the preparation that will occur if the employees working in thekitchen were infected with the bacteria too (Hoffmann et al., 2014).In this case, the food can easily keep the bacteria and spread it aslong as someone eats the contaminated food as well. Morespecifically, the food handlers are the people that were responsiblefor the bacterial spreading in the cruise ship. The infectious natureof the bacteria means that it will spread from one person to anothereasily. In the process, the food handlers need to ensure the optimumcleanliness that will monitor the food and ensure that it is safe forconsumption. Apart from that, the preparation and the storage of thesame food also exposed the food to the likelihood of contaminatingSalmonella Heidelberg. That means that the likelihood ofspreading will be higher if the food is stored in some dirty placesthat also have more bacteria too (Hoffmann et al., 2014). Besidesthat, the preparation of the food also had to ensure optimumcleanliness to avoid any scenario that will affect the food andcontaminate it in the end.

  1. What changes would you recommend before the ship books more cruises after March 3?

A number of changes will be needed before the journey commences inthe next cruise after March 3. First, there will be the need toremove any food present in the cruise ship. Evidently, the food wasone of the probable transmissions of the bacteria, and that means theremoval and the destruction of the food will be one of the ways toget rid of the bacteria as well. In this case, leaving the food onthe cruise ship will be one way to facilitate the contamination.Another change will be cleaning the galley and ensuring that it iscompletely sanitized to get rid of any remaining bacteria (Rebolledoet al., 2014). At times, the bacteria might only remain on theutensils and around the galley creating a favorable place for thebacteria to survive. Another change will need some structuralimprovements to enhance the arrangement of the refrigeration systemsas well as the dishwashing system. The structural improvement willaim at prioritizing the sanity and reducing the contamination of foodby any kind of harmful bacteria instead. The galley crew working inthe kitchen will also need to undergo effective training to sensitizethem on the need to ensure cleanliness and avoid any contaminationcases as well (Rebolledo et al., 2014). Apart from that, themanagement will need to create a better supervision that will monitorevery activity that the galley crew undertakes to ensure that theycomply with the sanitation guidelines. The supervision will avoid anyloopholes that led to the spread of the Salmonella Heidelbergearlier. A proper improvement of the food handling practices willlead to the galley being clean and ensuring that the bacteria is nolonger present in the kitchen. Such an achievement will be effectiveand will ensure that the cruise is safe to commence in the process.


Hoffmann, M., Zhao, S., Pettengill, J., Luo, Y., Monday, S. R.,Abbott, J., … &amp Allard, M. W. (2014). Comparative genomicanalysis and virulence differences in closely related Salmonellaenterica serotype Heidelberg isolates from humans, retail meats, andanimals. Genome biology and evolution, 6(5), 1046-1068.

Rebolledo, J., Garvey, P., Ryan, A., O`DONNELL, J., Cormican, M.,Jackson, S., … &amp Appels, R. W. (2014). International outbreakinvestigation of Salmonella Heidelberg associated with in-flightcatering. Epidemiology and infection, 142(04), 833-842.