Explain the Stage Model of Memory


Explainthe Stage Model of Memory

TheStage Model of Memory

Thestage model of memory belongs to the works of Atkinson and Shiffrin(1968). This model has different steps. The model maintains that,when new information is acquired, it has to be manipulated before itsstorage. According to this model, there are three stages of memory,which include sensory, short-term, and long-term memory.

Sensorymemory deals with the first stage of stimuli perception, and itinvolves the senses. However, not every stimulus that is perceivedgets stored in the memory. This stage of memory is limited since itcan store information for only half a second (Nevid, 2012). Itfunctions as a portal for any information that is to be part of thememory through taking it to the next level. It is the encoding stageof processing new information. For example, when a person hears newconcepts in class, they are encoded through the sense of hearing.

Short-termmemory is the second stage in processing information. In this step,information is actively processed while still being absorbed. Thisstage uses two ways to process information that is the maintenanceand repetition rehearsal, but they do not have a permanent effect onmemory thus, information is forwarded to the next stage foractivities like learning to occur (Nevid, 2012). This is where newconcepts encoded in the sensory memory are structured and organized.

Long-termmemory stores all the sensing, knowledge, and information that haveever been acquired by a person. However, information is stored in adormant form, and for a person to remember, this memory has to beretrieved back to the conscious mind. In this stage, information isstored for retrieval in the future.

ReasonsWhy People Forget

Thefirst reason is that of recovery failure which refers to theinability to regain traces of memory that keeps on fading away. Thesecond reason is due to interference. Interference occurs when two ormore memories stored in the brain obstruct each other, especiallywhen they are similar (Nevid, 2012). The third reason is that of theinability to store information in the memory. This occurs when thereis a problem in the encoding stage which can hinder information frombeing saved in the long-term memory.


Nevid,J. S. (2012). Essentialsof psychology: Concepts and applications.Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.