Exit Assessments

EXIT ASSESSMENTS 36

Pedagogical Theory and ClassroomPractice and Reflection Papers


University of South Florida

Tableof Contents

Table of Contents 2

Introduction 3

Pedagogical Theory Paper 3

Part 1: Context 3

Student Population and Needs 4

The present perfect and issues for learners 5

Present Perfect Issues 5

Aspects that May Cause Particular Problems 6

The present perfect 6

Why it is difficult for ESL learners 6

Difficulty of Arab Learners of English 7

Problems of Present Perfect 8

Present perfect and the simple past 9

Designing a Diagnostic 10

Diagnostic Results 12

Teaching Methods and Approaches 16

Classroom Practice and Reflection Paper 19

Part 2: 19

Teaching Procedures and Justification of Choices 19

Reflection: Lessons and Overall Experience 24

The Lessons 24

The Experience as a Whole 28

References 30

Appendix A 32

Appendix B 33

Appendix C 34

Appendix D 34

Appendix E 36

Introduction

The project discusses ESLstudents’ comprehension of the difference and the meaning of simplepast tense. The project is derived from the research in practicewhere the needs of the students were identified first. Then, theresearch was done to comprehend the complexities of the grammaticalstructure alongside the efforts to teach. Research-based lesson planswere obstructed and prepared to solve the issue. Post andpre-diagnostic exams were done to improve the student’sunderstanding about rules that governs phrases, clauses and words ina given language. The paper will discuss the present perfect tensesand the issues the learners encounter. The issues that will bediscussed include: present perfect tenses and aspects that may causeparticular problems. The research will then design a diagnostic anddisplay results. In the same regard, teaching methods and approacheswill be discussed. The second part presents teaching procedures andjustification of choices. In conclusion, a reflection of the overallexperience and lessons will be discussed, and illustrate theexperiences as a whole.

PedagogicalTheory PaperPart1: Context

I was assigned to teach grammar,level 3 lessons at INTO USF as part of my internship. INTO-USFillustrated two patterns of the language one pattern is the AcademicEnglish (AE) and the other is the General English (GE). These twopatterns are in conjunction with two pathway programs that weremodeled for the graduate and undergraduate students who needed to beadmitted fully to South Florida University. The paper centers ongrammar students who are in the third academic English program during2016 summer semester.

The educational program will bein operation for ten weeks during the summer semester rather thanduring spring. It presents intensive language training from thebeginner to more advanced levels. The program educates on thedevelopment of the academic skills as well as enhancing spoken andwritten English that will prepare the students for postgraduate orundergraduate study in the United States Universities. The programalso educates the English required for success in an AmericanUniversity or College, presents content-based curriculum andinnovative project. My primary focus will be on producing grammaticalforms for an efficient written and oral communication. Thegrammatical structures include present perfect continuous tenses,present perfect tenses, past perfect continuous tenses, past perfect,passive, and models. The students are reviewed based on ongoingassessment questions, writing presentations and essays. The firstmonth will concentrate on the perfect tenses.

StudentPopulation and Needs

The paper concentrates on level-3grammar class, which consists of 14 international students: two fromChina, two from Kuwait, nine from Saudi Arabia, and one from theUnited Arabs Emirates. The students have distinct experiences oflearning English Language. Some are new students while others arereturning students at INTO USF. The primary objective is to study thegrammatical structure of English and to have the capacity to producea high proficiency level of spoken and written English.

During the first day of theclasses, the instructor started with an icebreaker where each studentintroduced herself/himself and told the class about something theyhad never done before. In many instances, the students used thetenses wrongly and preferred to use simple past or simple presenttenses. A diagnostic exam was done during the same week for them toexamine their proficiency level based on grammatical structures theyhave learned and recognized the areas of complexities that need moreinstructions. The results presented a considerable number of studentswho have taken explicit instructions on the present perfect tense,their comprehension of the tenses are limited to simple past tense,present continuous tenses, simple present tenses and past continuoustenses. They failed to identify the meaning and the form of presentperfect, which is the focus of the paper.

ThePresent Perfect Tenses and Problems to the LearnersPresentPerfect Issues

The problems refer to previousresearch in the context of an investigation or refer to his findingsthat were found before. Present perfect tenses describes the tensesin the current form and illustrates the relevance of the results topresent day. The present perfect of the subject is often presented inthe general form. It could be taken into consideration. Nevertheless,the &quotpresentperfect&quot centerson what has been already done and what is understood as &quotpresentsimple.&quotThe present perfect forms illustrate a correlationbetween the present (the current study) and the past (priorresearch). In essence, a student will say what he/she has establishedand the contribution the students will make. It is also imperative topinpoint the variance existing in the current study. Thus, it isclear that improvement has been achieved.

The passive voice can bedescribed as the most occurring present perfect tense that can beused to portray the previous conclusions without referring to theoriginal paper. For instance, a researcher can start by:&quot……hasbeen studied it has been approved that….” The passive voicegives the capacity to shift the topic of the survey where it willhave more emphasis in the sentence. Present perfect tenses can beused to tell the history of an idea and describe the results ofstudies or draw conclusions (&quotit has led to the conclusionthat…..&quot).

Aspectsthat May Cause Particular ProblemsThePresent Perfect Tenses

The present perfect is utilizedto say that a given action happened at an unspecified time before themoment. Present perfect tenses cannot be used with particular timeexpression such as: &quotone year ago, yesterday, last week, thatday, when I lived in China, one day, etc. The present perfectillustrates unclear phrases such as &quotonce, never, ever, severaltimes etc.&quot The thought of unnamed period can be perplexing tothe English learners. Thus, it is to the best interest to discuss theperfect present. Some learners have difficulty in learning thepresent perfect. This is evidenced by their low score in varioustopics. Various factors cause this difficulty physiological aspectintroduces the body condition of the learner. On the other hand,psychological aspects emphasize on the way the students think. It mayinclude motivation, talents, interests, a special type of learner andmental health. The external factors of the student include the socialenvironment. The students may be affected by the people around theway they use present perfect and how correctly they use.

Whyit is difficult for ESL learners

ESL students produce sentencesthat are a bit strange to the native English user of the language.English present progressive tenses to express actions that are notscheduled in thesaurus dictionary in distinct form and their meaningis complicated to get. The English preposition is a common problemsince diverse languages utilize separate prepositions to convey someideas. It assists the students if several prepositions are used atone period. In the same regard, it helps students if they put thepreposition in the correct setting. The present perfect introducesthe idea that something happened, or it did not occur at all atunspecified time in the past. In essence, the exact time is notcritical, and this poses a problem to the students since they cannotconnect to the past and the present

Difficultyof Arab Learners of English

Arab students face challenges ofthe preposition. The preposition use is the most complex for EFL Arabstudents. The most common prepositions that pose this challengeincludes: &quotof, at,for, with, to and on&quot. TheMTI is a strategy that can be used in learning that most Arablearners retreat exclusively in acquiring poor classroom conditionswhere language exposure is limited to some few hours. Most of themistakes are derived from mother tongue’s influence as the primarysource. Previous studies support these findings. An Arabicpreposition is similar to the English one. The indigenous languageinterference relates to the issues of literal Arabic translations.The adult learners may be informed about their transfer strategy.Prepositions play the part of the grammatical maker, knowledgeextraction, and indexing because they suggest correlation of muchsignificance like instruments, comparisons and estimation.Prepositions are words that are placed before a pronoun or a noun toshow or indicate what relation an individual has, regarding adifferent thing.

The articles system is thehardest constituent for EFL students in the Arabic language. Master(2002) connects this complex nature of the English “article the”function words &quottheand a/n&quot, are notemphasized and are complicated for non-native speakers. The speakersof Arabic language have a problematic issue of definiteness. The nounphrase describes that the difficulty arising in the area of the nounphrase is the use of articles. Several errors occur in the usage ofarticles. One error is: indefinite articles are deleted where astudent fails to include it. The student may write the &quotindefiniteas definite form.&quot The students may align the indefinitearticles with the adjectives. A student may have difficulty in usingthe indefinite article with the many parts. For instance, a studentmay say. &quotTherewere a captivating text……received from.&quotIt is, therefore, clear that most of ESL/EFL from the Arab nationhave difficulty in the use of the article. The problem is dependenton the mother`s language of the learner. Oversimplification andovergeneralization were found to be the underlying source ofdifficulty.

Another challenge is thediscourse makers. Speechmaker is a sequential process that includesreviewing, planning, thinking, developing, presenting and editing. Inessence, it is an instrument used to establish the language andextend critical thinking in all disciplines. A study by Modhish`s(2012) discusses that EFL Arab students use contrastive, elaborative,contributory, and the subjects that relate to markers. It is evidentfrom their writing that DMs were overused. For instance, theyoverused &quotand,furthermore, as well as, also, etc.”The poor writing quality of the learners is related to sentences thatare deemed to be erroneous. Most of the educators depended entirelyon their mother`s tongue literal translation into English

Problemsof Present Perfect Tenses

The present perfect is animperative tense in the English language. Nevertheless, it giveslearners of the language a hard time since it uses the ideas andconcepts that are not in other languages. In essence, its structureis very simple. The problems arise with the usage of the tenses.There are distinctions between American and British English. Thepresent perfect is deductively taught by giving rules andhighlighting the form or with guided full exposure and discovery tothe meaning of the forms. Present perfect cannot be taught in onelesson but should initiate its various forms and use distinct levelsover a period differentiating them with past participle.

Students have several issues withthe present perfect. Intra-language issues include those that thestudents have an ideal aspect in their mother tongue and use itdifferently. Students may often mix-up based on the time and tensesand cannot distinguish between aspect and tense. The students at alower level often use the auxiliary wrongly, mix-up forms of presentperfect and past simple or combine them. Students also have issues todo with recognizing the contracted forms since they tend not to usethem. The students make mistakes with understanding the contractedforms. The problems arise as a result of the irregular verb at alower level and intermediate levels. Another complex issue is theprogressive issue. The student makes arguments based on the positionof &quotalready, just,still, and yet&quot.

This problem can be solved bydrilling, highlighting the forms and giving the students, amplepractice tasks that can assist. Students can be helped to notice whatgo hand in hand with the past participle or noun. Accuracy can beachieved through substitution tables at pre-intermediate level. If itis an assessment of a form is made, the activity can be morechallenging by allowing students to form change table. Skeletonsentences can be presented to the students to complete. Memorizationhas to be made for the irregular verbs. Nevertheless, students shouldbe assisted to find the regularities by giving them group verbsformed in the same way. Job game is a fun way of practicingprogressive form. Both perfect aspect and simple tense exist in theArabic language. Timelines assist in illustrating the distinctivenessbetween definite and indefinite time in the past. Different designsare to be used. The visual students use symbols. Present perfectprogressive or present perfect tenses poses one distinct challenge:students usually use mix-ups randomly. The difference inherent in themeaning is in most cases unclear to the students and thus making ithard for them to apply it in the right context.

Presentperfect and the simple past

Present perfect simple shows theunfinished actions that started in the past and are continuing to thepresent. For instance, &quotI have known Lisa for eight years now&quot.On the contrast, simple past deals with complete actions such as “Iknew Lisa for eight years before we lost touch”. The twodistinctions have a weak line and therefore it is hard for thestudents to bring out the differences. The present perfect can beused to talk about the present situation that happened at anunspecified time whereas the simple past expresses the point of timein the past.

Our workings on the languageillustrate five components: semantics, syntax, morphology,pragmatics/discourse and phonology. Phonology describes theintonation patterns and sounds associated with the spoken language.Interpretation includes the words and meaning of the terms related tothe phrase. Morphology describes the rules governing the use ofmorphemes. Syntax describes grammatical rules of languages.Pragmatics explains how we adjust our speech to the audience and theuse of language towards communication goal.

Designinga Diagnostic

To determine the ability of thestudent to use present perfect tenses appropriately, the studentswere required to respond in paragraph form. During the first meeting,the students were asked to introduce themselves and say somethingthat they had never done before. This task functions as an icebreakerfor the first student-teaching meeting. The task also operates as adiagnostic of the learner’s ability and use the present perfectbefore the instructions. The trainer wanted the students to producethe target structure naturally. The present perfect was thefundamental choice to use. However, no one used the tenses correctlyeven when the instructor designed it first.

The second part of the diagnosticconcentrated on the abilities of the student to produce written formsof the present perfect. In essence, the students were told to postthe writing prompt “whois Hillary Clinton?&quot.As a result, they were told to look for online information aboutClinton and then post 2-3 questions using the present perfect. Thisdiagnostic assessment is aimed at evaluating the capacity of thestudents to use the present perfect after regular instruction andalso identify the area of confusion. The discussion post assisted infunctionalizing the learned grammatical structure. The aim of havingthe student to post online is to give them space and time to thinkabout the use and the form of the tense and to form sentences thatare grammatically correct. The educator uses this diagnostic reviewto identify the area of complexity and to expand the research-basedlesson plans. The question and diagnostic results answered thequestion of why the students were not able to use present perfect inthe right setting.

The third diagnostic assessmentwas administered after an array of research-based lesson plans. Thestudents were asked to submit a well-written essay about HillaryClinton. This evaluation was aimed at understanding the ability ofthe student to make a distinction between the uses of differenttenses when to use the simple past, when to use the present perfecttenses and which verbs are impossible to use in present perfect. Allthe diagnostic assessments are found in Appendix A

One of the first things to takeinto consideration in language education is getting to understandyour student`s capacities based on their knowledge about the tenses.It is imperative to think of the diagnostic review so as to know theproficiency level of student and previous experience before anyinstruction occurs. A diagnostic review was modeled alongside mymentor to assess the awareness of the student based on the tenses,what they don`t know and what they know. The results presentedinformation about the previous knowledge of the student before theinstructor made any elevated expectations from the students. A set ofthe diagnostic review were created to identify the ability of thetarget student to comprehend the meaning and form of the presentperfect. One basic way was identifying the abilities of the studentsbefore any instruction, the other was after the instruction and thelast one was after a series of research-based lesson plans.

In designing the diagnostic, theconsiderations above were the main concerns. Since the summersessions are just ten weeks long and include ten major assignmentsthat are to be completed in class, the instructor needed the studentsreading and producing materials that would rationally fit with theobjectives and curriculum. When modeling the diagnostic review, thetime constraints remain to be the biggest problem to be considered bythe instructor. There were explicit assumptions of the instructorbefore the semester began. The instructor pre-prepared for the firstassessment and was concise cut from the first day of the class toconsider the present perfect as the integral of the paper.

DiagnosticResults

The diagnostic assessments weredispensed to fourteen students in grammar class, nine of them werereturning students while remaining five were new students. As part ofthe first day of classes, the instructor was inquisitive by natureabout their proficiency level. Therefore, the instructor asked themto introduce themselves. The students took an extensive, productionbased diagnostic during the first day of the class. Meanwhile, thetutor was evaluating their proficiency level as well as correctsgrammatical structures usage. The teacher then asked them to saysomething they had never done before and thus designing the firstturn.

The focus of the assignment isthe spoken utterance of the present perfect. There were significantissues that were noticed using the present perfect while writing downtheir errors in notes form. The students failed to realize that theywere required to give particular grammatical structure, and theirprimary concern was on introducing themselves. The assessmentpresented natural utterances that were free of the stress of beingevaluated or judged on grammatical structures.

The results showed that none ofthe students had the capacity to use the present perfect tenses inthe right context and correct form, and each had his/her particularerror. Most of the students were not able to use the majorcombination of the right grammatical structure of the present perfectwhich is the past participle verb and auxiliary verb. Less than halfof the class got the capacity to use auxiliary verbs. However, theychose the incorrect verb choice, either past or progressive form.Three of the students used the present progressive such as &quotIhave never eaten Chinese food&quot. Five students, on the otherhand, used the past form such as &quotI have never written plays&quot.The problem here indicated their previous knowledge on thegrammatical structure of the present perfect. Nevertheless, itreflected that they were not able to functionalize the tense in theright meaning and form.

The first pair of classes of thesemester focused on the present perfect. Although the studentsincluded some transitions in diagnostic response, the teacher feltthat, after the instructions had been present, students should havethe capacity to use and comprehend the present perfect in the correctmeaning and form despite the limitations they had. By the end of thecurrent excellentclass, the studentswere asked to look up for information about Hillary Clinton fromonline sources. They were required to form 2-3 sentences using thepresent perfect. Then, they were required to post them under CANVASdiscussions. The students were asked to ensure that they had newinformation besides the posts from their classmates. The purpose wasto check the ability to look up for information and use presentperfect with the right information. It may sound easy since it isjust two sentences and they can use the online information, butpractically it is complex. The main concerns of the students are theform. Now, they know the form but fail to understand how to apply it.It cannot be applicable in each action. Some of the informationoccurred in the past, so it should not be used in present perfectwhere each action and sentence has an explicit consideration based onpresent perfect meaning.

Once the student posts theirsentences under debate, the educator categorized and assessed themajor incorrect utterances presented by the students. Based on theform, most of the students wrote the sentences correctly based onpresent perfect since they had the subject first then the auxiliaryverb followed, and finally, the past participle. There were severalerrors regarding the past participle. Nevertheless, all the errorswere in usage. The students failed to functionalize the correct formin the right context. The present perfect has its individual setting.Nevertheless, for some actions and verbs, it cannot be used at all.The discussion was modeled and carried out to scrutinize and classifythe sources and types of the students` errors in comprehending thepresent perfect tense.

The review of the discussionposts was by classification of mistakes coder`s the errors wereclassified based on the distinction between reconstructed version andthe utterance of the learner. His classification was categorized intofour stages the addition of unnecessary elements omissions ofrequired elements misordering of the elements and misselection ofthe incorrect item. The errors of student were categorized based oncoder`s classification as presented in the table. From the frequencyof mistakes, it is evident that misselection was the mostfrequently shown error by the students. A list of error of frequenterrors is provided in the table.

Omission

Addition

Misselection

Misordering

Student 1

^ ^ ^

Student 2

^^

Student 3

Student 4

^^

Student 5

Student 6

^

^

Student 7

^ ^^

Student 8

^

^

Student 9

^

^

Student 10

^

^^

Student 11

^

Student 12

^

^

Student 13

^ ^

Student 14

The frequency of errors resultsindicates that misselection was the most frequent besides that theoverall observation from the post displayed that most of the studentsused the correct form. However, the tenses were overused andgeneralized. There is a massive mix-up between the usage of simplepast and present perfect. The instructor determined that extraassistance was needed by students in differentiating between thetenses so as to comprehend the distinction first and then use thecorrect tenses in the right setting. It can be said that errorsusually happen if the learner is yet to learn an item although thesubject has been covered in class. The instructor then concludes thatthe incurrent usage of language system elements. However, it can beself-corrected.

Although the students did well inselecting appropriate present perfect in the right setting, most ofthe students hardly used the present perfect correctly. The paltryusage of connecting the present perfect in diagnostic 1 falls shortof the automaticity of this skill. The overall results that werederived from diagnostic 2 show that most students had a problem inlinking present perfect in the right context whereas the tenses wereoverused and generalized.

TeachingMethods and Approaches

The study aimed to scrutinize theexperience of career educator who taught grammar to EFL collegestudent through the use of DDL for the first time. It is evident thatthe educators found data-driven learning an exciting and innovativemethod to teach present tenses, approve the ability of DDL to offermore incentives for students into the active learners. The resultsalso showed some setback that entailed DDL and the feasible ways forthe teachers to meet them. The challenge was inclusive of anincreased technical complexities and workload in designing the DDLmaterials and conducting tasks that were DDL-centered. However, theteachers ultimately expand their teachings by pursuing threefundamental practices: deploying concordance lines that werecomplete, minimizing the number of corpus. Also, entries were usedand the educator asked the students focus guiding queries.

Various education practices areassociated with inquiry-based learning such as in problem solving.Despite the diversity in inquiry, terminology in higher educationliterature, it is described as the approaches to teaching that areproblem-based and question driven. There is international interestbased on the inquiry role in the undergraduate courses and acrossvarious disciplines. It can be argued that memory oriented styles,traditional didactic of teaching will no longer meet the needs of thestudents. Critical inquiry pedagogy focuses on the social relationsand injustice of power and presents various inequalities, promotesand examines practices that have the possibility of transformingsocial relations or oppressive institutions through educationalpractices.

This may be differentiated fromthe rules written in the textbooks. It was found that corpus-informeddata brought satisfaction in learning grammar to the EFL learners.Grammatical knowledge does not guarantee fluency in language. Thereare diverse ESL students who perform well on grammar test but havelittle capacity to speak or understand English. Contrastingly, mostof the native English speakers have a complexity in explaining rulesof grammar. The researchers have distinguished between the focus onforms in second language transition (Doughty, 2003).

Focusing on the form is thepurposeful teaching grammar to present a comprehension of grammar inthat comprehending alone will give a capacity for the languagelearner to use the form correctly. On the other hand, focus on theform refers to conveying grammar to the attention of the students ofthe language as part of the communicative practice of the language.It is conceded that focusing on grammar for the sake of language doesless to contribute the accuracy during communication while ensuringthat the ESL learners are aware of the structure as part ofcommunicative language practice can add to the development of greatercommunication accuracy.

In a bid to maximize the academicgrowth of students, one of the best tools that the instructors canuse is the explicit instructions. The clear instructions focus oncritical content where the educator teaches strategies, skills,concepts, vocabulary terms and rules that will motivate the studentsshortly and match the instructional needs of the students. Theimplicit instructions break down the complex strategies and skillsinto smaller units of instruction. Complex skills are segmented intosmaller units of new materials to addresses the cognitive processingdemands, overloading and the capacity of the working memory of thestudent.

An explicit practical instructioncan be viewed as presenting an array of instructional supportsthrough logical sequencing or selection of the content and break downthe material into instructional units that are manageable based onthe cognitive abilities of the students. The instruction deliveryincludes clear demonstrations and description of skills followed bytimely feedback and supported practice. The primary method is carriedthroughout high levels of involving the educator. Nevertheless, oncethe student succeeds, the support system of the teacher is withdrawnsystematically, and the students move towards the independentperformance.

The study into &quotfocus onform&quot of ESL grammar instruction recommends three feasible waysthat contribute to the development of the communicative ability. Inthe first case, direct ESL grammar may assist in raising theconsciousness of the learner of the form in which they have noticedwhen they hear or read it in that the students may recognize thefeature and listen to it in the long run (Ellis, 2003 SharwoodSmith, 1981). The second reason for the grammatical knowledge is thatit serves as a device to the memory thus assisting the ESL learnersto remember how certain form are produced until they can present itautomatically (Blair, 1982).

The ESL grammar instructions candefine floodingstudents withinstances of a form that infrequently occurs, giving them moreintensive practice with the form that they might not encounter intheir everyday speech except on weekly basis. Knowledge of grammardoes not yield fluent language speakers. There are diverse ESLlearners who do exceptionally on grammar tests. Nevertheless, theyhave little capacity to speak or understand English. Contrastingly,most of the native speakers who speak flawlessly have a complexity inexplaining the rules of grammar. TALL ESL system emphasizes on formtechnique for grammar instructions. In the same regard, TALL presentgrammar in a way that it does not need the ESL learners to develop arich foundation of grammatical terms but rather helps the learner toremember the particular structure of the utterances. Instead ofpresenting ESL with rules of discussion, Tall prefers enlivenedexamples which focus on the correlation between the meaning and theform. Just in time grammar defines the usage of grammatical exercisesand explanations presented as part of the activity-based approach toESL learning where the performance of the activities is paramount,and presentation of grammar is the tool used to increase accuracy andfacilitate communication.

Corpus is a massive compilationof reliable texts in the electronic design that is modeled torepresent a variety of language. However, it is controversial even inthe realm of corpus linguistics. The DDL tasks are thought to be partof a student-centered research approach, and some of the experiencedteachers believe that most of the nonmajor students lack proficiencyand motivation to engage in such activities. CALL is a greatsignificance and importance in acquiring of second languages. Thereare various journals devoted to research on topics. Most of the ESLtextbooks now have accompanying websites with interactive privatestudies. It is clear that most of the learners are searching onlinesources in distinct ways that are not similar to data drivenlearning. This is a procedure that may be wholly encouraging by theireducator at the same time staying obscured in the literature of datadriven learning. This procedure is present in unique approaches thatseem appealing. Extensive preparation is limited by space and thus,the students cannot research on detailed theories DDL. The author ofthis study claims that DDL are effective since they create aninstance where research can be done. Higher motivation level is, ofcourse, desirable in this course.

ClassroomPractice and Reflection PaperPart2:TeachingProcedures and Justification of Choices

Regarding the diagnostic results,it is evident that the ESL students are facing a lot of complexitiesin understanding the differences between simple past and presentperfect. The diagnostic assessment that was submitted to this grammarclass showed that the students were confused between present perfectand the simple past based on the usage and meaning, and they overusedthe present perfect in various aspects in trying to attain the timelypost without getting the distinction between the two tenses.

Thus, in a class setting whereone of the primary objectives is to use the present perfect inwritten and spoken settings, it is vital to attain these goals andassesses the abilities of the students to produce a grammaticalstructure in written and spoken context appropriately. From therequirement of an institution as the primary objectives alongside theneeds of the student, it is ideally perfect to identify the needs ofthe students and assess them as they make progress.

Three main goals were modeled tobe attained after an array of research-based lesson plans. In thefirst instance, the students should comprehend and realize thedistinction between simple past and present perfect regarding itsmeaning. Secondly, the students should exhibit the prerequisite toidentify the time signals for the present perfect when comparing itto the ones aimed for simple past. Thirdly, the students shouldpractice and use the two tenses consequently in written and spokensettings. To attain the objectives, extensive research was conductedto gibbet the lesson plans with a theory to practical on inquisitivelearning, DDL and “focus on forms” and “focus on form”approaches. The approaches methods of educating above were founduseful in teaching the present perfect alongside the hypothesis ofthe instructor on the effectiveness of discovery learning techniquesin class (teaching inductive grammar).

The ELP (English LanguageProgram) at INTO-USF present the four market of the best practice.These includes: engage student through student-centered tasks, teachlanguage through content, include the culturally responsive teachingsin lessons and assess students through various techniques. The threemarkers are constituents that can be incorporated into three basiclesson sketches. The other constituent is something that the educatorrequires to be aware of during the lessons.

The first lesson as presented inAppendix B was modeled to have an array of inquiry of actionsexplicit instruction discovers the difference and then rulesapplication. Each student was given six sentences, each of the twohas the same agents but with diverse time forms and signals (one isin the present perfect and one in the simple past). The students weretold to identify the tenses without indicating which is or offeringthem terms. The students were then asked to cite the distinctionbetween each of the sentences. The first sentence was the hardest,and the other moved smoothly. The students worked individually andidentified and mentioned the difference. The intentions of the taskare to ensure that each of the students has their hypothesis andrationale and converse it with the class. The tasks took around tenminutes that were followed by student-student discussions andteacher-student discussions. A considerable number of students did anexemplary job in justifying their answers based on the time and formof signals. However, when it came to the meaning, a considerablenumber of students felt the same. After this activity, an explicitexplanation was provided to illustrate distinction between presentperfect and simple past.

The educator used textbook sinceINTO USF is syllabus that is content based, then she presented themwith an array of sentences alongside time signals explanations inpower point slides. Thus, everyone will be available to see thesentences. The instructor offered a concise explanation to use thepresent perfect and simple past, why it is complex, usage and timesignals indicate tenses. The students were given a handout after theexplicit explanation. They have to work in pairs and debate on theanswers. Most of the students made complete sentences with the rightanswers to the questions. The students did an excellent job not tocomplete the sentences but also in justifying their answers andrationalizing the differences.

The second lesson was modeled togive the student some review on the differences between the twotenses, identify the tenses in the corpus and determine the use oftenses in the listening script. The teacher assessed what had beencovered previously based on the differences between “simple pastand present perfect”. The instructor wrote four sentences on theboard and asked the students to complete the either the sentences bywriting down time or a number.

After the assessment part, theinstructor played audio from the textbook. The students were supposedto listen twice, during the second time they were to write thesentences in simple past, present perfect continuous and presentperfect. Once they wrote sentence in their notes, the instructor drewthree columns on board and played the audio. After each of thesentence, the teacher paused and asked one student to write sentencesunder one of the columns on board based on his/her thoughts. The aimof the tasks was to ensure that the students think and identify thegrammatical structure and use the “simple past and the presentperfect” in listening task. The corpus-based work was given to thestudents. The instructors expounded on the definition of the corpusand how it is necessary to use authentic grammatical structureinstances. COCOA was then used where students were showed how to findsentences in full context using a time signal. The teacher began thelesson with the word yesterdayand then listedseveral sentences appeared on the screen and then they were shown howthe sentences occur in the pure form. The instructor then asked themto create groups and workout on identifying the verbs and forms ineach of the sentences.

Apparently, there should be anapplication task where the students are divided into groups whereeach of the group had crayons, plain papers, and slip. The papersheet indicated a celebrity. Each team was made to look up forinformation about their favorite celebrity. Each group was made tolook up for information about a celebrity and prepare a five-minutepresentation to the class. In the same regard, the students wererequired to draw on plain graphs, pictures, tables but not to draftsentences. They were required to use simple present or past perfectwhen performing. The purpose of the task was to ensure that thestudent lookup for and synthesized information and presented it toclass

The goal of the activities is thespoken production aimed at the grammatical structures. The studentsare supposed to find information in present perfect and simple past.The idea of the event is that, previously, they had a lot of mistakesregarding the choice of the right tense when speaking about the lifeof a famous person. When diagnostic assessment was made in HillaryClinton`s post, one of the biggest problems was the overuse ofpresent perfect when talking about a person`s life.

The third lesson as presented inAppendix D has centered entirely on an independent production oftargets Las inherent in the initial compositions made by the student.The experience was required to include independent production byreviewing activity since it was the last set of the project. Based onthis assessment, I knew I needed to give the student what they needto do in diagnostic.

The teacher went back to thediscussion post about Hillary Clinton and reviewed the sentencesindividually and corrected them with students. This action was aimedto ensure that the students realize their mistakes using the presentperfect and how they overuse the present perfect over simple past,and the way there exist several events to use present perfect. Afterrationalizing the correction and identifying the errors, the studentswere arranged into groups and asked to compose well-written essaysfrom the online resource and discussion post using the correct tenseseither present perfect or simple past. This activity is aimed atmaking the student realize their mistakes and to give feedback anddiscuss when adding more information. Each of the team was asked overto show their project on the overhead projector, and the teacheralong with students gave each team constructive feedback based on theessay.

Reflection:Lessons and Overall Experience

Each of the lessons illustrationof the difference between simple past and the present perfect wasexceptional. Each of the experience had distinct purposes andobjectives, with the initial lesson being the most focused ondetailed explanation and presentation of the difference betweenpresent perfect and simple past. The second focused on realizationand identification of the language spoken and form production of theintended grammatical structure and the third focused on understandingand identification of spoken production and grammatical production ofthe proposed grammatical structure. The third focused onindependently written production and served as diagnostic assessmentpost.

I am sure that these objectivesworked better to give exposure to students to practice with thedifference between the present perfect and simple past and presentperfect from comprehending their meaning, getting to understand thegrammatical structure and spoken texts to apply them in speaking andwriting.

TheLessons

The first lesson was exceptional.I knew I would need to contemplate on the arrangement of thecorrelating present perfect. I needed the students to be familiarwith INTO USF as part of my internship. INTO-USF showed two patternsof the language one pattern is the Academic English (AE) and GeneralEnglish (GE) program along with two pathway programs that weremodeled for the graduate and undergraduate students. I also learnedthat students had problems when it comes to present perfect tenses.During the first day of the classes, the instructor started with anicebreaker where each student introduced herself/himself and tell theclass about something they have never done before. The presentperfect is an important tense in the English language since it gavelearners of the language a hard time. In essence, its structure wasvery simple. The problems were derived from the usage of the tenses.The present perfect was deductively taught by giving rules andhighlighting the form or with guided full exposure and discovery tothe form in meaning and at a higher authentic context level.

It is clear that present perfectcannot be taught in one lesson but should initiate its various formsand use distinct levels over a period differentiating them with pastparticiple. After checking in the example that was given by thestudents, they were encouraged to check for more examples relating totenses. Students had several issues with the present perfect. Afterchecking on the examples that they had presented, they were adept atidentifying intra-language issues. These issues included those thatthe learners had an ideal aspect in their mother’s language andused it differently. It was noted that the students mixed up based onthe time and tenses and could not distinguish between aspect andtense.

The assessment part was found tobe more imperative. The second lesson was initiated seven days afterthe first lesson. The students were more excited about it: I believein shifting the week`s approach and dynamics of this class as anarray of the team games. All learners who engaged in the first lessoncompleted the activity. My objective for the second lesson was aimedat allowing the students to produce targets that connect presentperfect, and all learners were able to engage in third and secondactivities. The students completed each of the tasks in the secondlesson quite successfully. Nevertheless, some issues arose. Forinstance, the students at a lower level often used the auxiliarywrongly, mixed-up forms of present perfect and past simple or combinethem. The groups did not succeed in the second task. The studentsalso had issues to do with recognizing the contracted forms sincethey tended not to use them. The students made mistakes withunderstanding the contracted forms since they could not usethemselves.

The problems arose as a result ofthe irregular verb at a lower level and intermediate levels. Theperformed well in the last task it was modeled to be a bitcomplicated. All along, I identified that I needed the learners toget an opportunity for autonomous practice with the task and my tutormade an argument to keep the energy and competition high. To succeed,the learners were told to post the writing prompt. The discussionpost assisted in functionalizing the learned grammatical structure.The aim of having the student to post online was to give them spaceand time to think about the use and the form of the tense and to formsentences that are grammatically correct.

This technique in the thirdactivity had some issues. The focus of the assignment was the spokenutterance of the present perfect. There were significant issues thatwere noticed using the present perfect while writing down theirerrors in notes form. The students failed to realize that they wererequired to give particular grammatical structure, and their primaryconcern was on introducing themselves. The assessment presentednatural utterances that were free of the stress of being evaluated orjudged on grammatical structures. Although this was not the mainproblem, it is an exception that I needed to motivate the students toconsider this issue. In essence, whatever I did was aimed atinforming the learners in class. This is potential mixed-up in onesetting and this can be improved greatly.

The third diagnostic assessmentwas administered after an array of research-based lesson plans wasdiscussed. The students were asked to submit a well-written essayabout Hillary Clinton. This evaluation was aimed at understanding theability of the student to make a distinction between the uses ofdifferent tenses when to use the simple past, when to use the presentperfect and which verbs are impossible to use in present perfect.

I received positive feedback frommy mentor on this lesson. She gave me constructive comments thatrelated to the comments I gave on the second task and the way I dealtwith present perfect issues. One of the first things that I took intoconsideration in language education was getting to understand thestudent`s capacities based on their knowledge about the tenses. Adiagnostic review was modeled alongside my mentor to assess theawareness of the student based on the tenses, what they don`t knowand what they know. The results presented information about theprevious knowledge of the student before the instructor made anyelevated expectations from the students. The main suggestions of mymentor were that it would have been imperative to find instances ofpresent perfect and tenses in the right context and ensure that thelearners avoid over-generalizing them.

In the meantime, I think it wouldbe necessary nevertheless, time is a limiting factor. After thestudents completed writing down the paragraphs, there was less timeleft for the learners. Most probably, I would have given themhomework that needed them to focus on the spoken utterances. Thestudents failed to realize that they were required to give particulargrammatical structure, and their primary concern was on introducingthemselves. The assessment presented natural utterances that werefree of the stress of being evaluated or judged on grammaticalstructures.

TheExperience as a Whole

The ultimate session derived fromthe assignment was presented one week before the summer sessionended. In writing this, the learners have already completed theirfinal projects. Whatever is written on their papers is reallymotivating me since most of the learners presented a well written anda long piece of their tasks. All learners were successful in usingpresent perfect. It is thus satisfying to see them progress.Initially, there were diverse issues that were encountered. Some ofthe problems include problems based on the position of &quotalready,just, still, and yet&quot. This issue can be solved by drilling,highlighting the forms and giving the students with ample practicetasks can assist. Students can be supported helped to notice what goalongside the past participle or noun. Correctness can be trainedwith substitution tables at pre-intermediate level.

I was fortunate to collectfeedback from the students. The feedback can be seen in Appendix Ewhere learners gave their feedback without indicating their names. Itwas encouraging to get positive feedback. The students reported thatthe three lessons discussing the complexity involved in presentperfect were of great assistance, and they understood more of it thanthey did before the lessons began. Also, it is imperative since thethree lessons can be referred as the most important by at least twostudents. Previously, I felt that the session would be the least tosucceed.

The assignment and the entireattachment period was massive activity. The study that I went throughin organizing the session was different from other preparation I hadundergone previously in class since whatever I have come across isbased on lessons modeled from class projects. I feel that after doingand creating lesson-based research (both the needs of the studentsand literature) and then getting to see the lessons in actionalongside their results, demonstrate a closer correlation betweenresearch and teaching. It is, therefore, imperative to note thatparticular recommendations are involved in teaching linking presentperfect in the literature and writing out and taking generalrecommendations on detailed lessons were an exciting process.

I have been away from particularstudents` needs and the importance of the context for a while.Nevertheless, enacting the lesson plans enhanced that belief.Although I was applying suggestions approaches derived from theliterature on the complexity of present perfect and ESL students, inthe end, the needs of my students and the course objectives formedthe basis of what happened in the plan of the lesson. Essentially,this was accurate given the unique context of teaching the summersessions it is not at all times the case to achieve these goals andrelate to the students requirements in a short period. The balancebetween the recommendations derived from the research, curriculum andstudent’s need is something I will strive to attain in future evenwhen with limited timeframe.

I am happy to have gotten thecapacity to teach and develop the lessons and carry them out withseveral students. It was rewarding to see the progress. I amfortunate that I got a chance to have a positive impact on students.Also, the excellent mentors who came to assist me at one point intime were of great significance since they helped me in designingclass lessons. The experience is amazing, and I will carry it on andassist other people in my profession as an educator.

References

Alderson, C. (2005). Diagnosingforeign language proficiency. The interface between learning andassessment. London: Continuum.

Altenberg, B., &amp Tapper, M.(1998). The use of adverbial connectors in advanced Swedish learners`written English. 80-93.

Anderson, G. (2014). So,transitions: linking adverbial use of university ESL students. TheCATESOL Journal, 26(1), 1-13.

Boulton, A. (2011). Data-drivenlearning: The perpetual enigma. In S. Goźdź-Roszkowski(Ed.),Explorationsacross languages and corpora (pp.563-580). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech,G., Conrad, S., &amp Finegan, E. (1999). Longman grammar of spokenand written English. Harlow, England: Longman.

Celce-Murica, M., &ampLarsen-Freeman, D. (1999). The grammar book: An ESL/EFL teacher’scourse. Boston: Heinle &amp Heinle.

Celce-Murcia, M., Brinton, D. M.,&amp Snow, M. A. (Eds.). 2014. Teaching English as a Second orForeign Language. Heinle Cengage Learning

Chiang, S. (2003). The importanceof cohesive conditions to perceptions of writing quality at the earlystages of foreign language learning. System, 31, 471-484

Dastjerdi, H. V., &amp Samian,S. H. (2011). Quality of Iranian EFL learners’ argumentativeessays: cohesive devices in focus. Mediterranean Journal of SocialSciences, 2(2), 65-76.

Eia, A. B. (2006). The use oflinking adverbials in Norwegian advanced learners` written English.(Master’s thesis). !31

Garner, J. R. (2013). The use oflinking adverbials in academic essays by non-native writers: howdata-driven learning can help. CALICO Journal, 30(3), 410-422. doi:10.11139/cj. 30.3.410-422

Modhish, A. S. (2012). Use ofDiscourse Markers in the Composition Writings of Arab EFL learners.EnglishLanguage Teaching,5(5),56-61.

Master, P. (2002). Informationstructure and English article pedagogy. System,30,331-348.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(02)00018-0

Shea, M. (2010). A corpus-basedstudy of adverbial connectors in learner text. MSU Working Papers inSecond Language Studies, 1(1). !32

AppendixAAppendixBAppendixC

Models of teaching andlearning are critical pieces to instructional planning and deliverybecause they help educators:

1) Develop highly tuned and morevaried professional repertoires

2) allow them to reach largernumbers for students more effectively

3) Create either more uniform, orvaried, or effective instructional events, guided by targetedsubjects, content, or processes

4) Understand curricular focibetter, especially as different models can be matched specifically toboth learning outcomes and/or targeted learning populations

5) Gain needed insights into whysome methods work with some learners, while others do not

AppendixDAppendixE

EXIT ASSESSMENTS 36

Pedagogical Theory and ClassroomPractice and Reflection Papers


University of South Florida

Tableof Contents

Table of Contents 2

Introduction 3

Pedagogical Theory Paper 3

Part 1: Context 3

Student Population and Needs 4

The present perfect and issues for learners 5

Present Perfect Issues 5

Aspects that May Cause Particular Problems 6

The present perfect 6

Why it is difficult for ESL learners 6

Difficulty of Arab Learners of English 7

Problems of Present Perfect 8

Present perfect and the simple past 9

Designing a Diagnostic 10

Diagnostic Results 12

Teaching Methods and Approaches 16

Classroom Practice and Reflection Paper 19

Part 2: 19

Teaching Procedures and Justification of Choices 19

Reflection: Lessons and Overall Experience 24

The Lessons 24

The Experience as a Whole 28

References 30

Appendix A 32

Appendix B 33

Appendix C 34

Appendix D 34

Appendix E 36

Introduction

The project discusses ESLstudents’ comprehension of the difference and the meaning of simplepast tense. The project is derived from the research in practicewhere the needs of the students were identified first. Then, theresearch was done to comprehend the complexities of the grammaticalstructure alongside the efforts to teach. Research-based lesson planswere obstructed and prepared to solve the issue. Post andpre-diagnostic exams were done to improve the student’sunderstanding about rules that governs phrases, clauses and words ina given language. The paper will discuss the present perfect tensesand the issues the learners encounter. The issues that will bediscussed include: present perfect tenses and aspects that may causeparticular problems. The research will then design a diagnostic anddisplay results. In the same regard, teaching methods and approacheswill be discussed. The second part presents teaching procedures andjustification of choices. In conclusion, a reflection of the overallexperience and lessons will be discussed, and illustrate theexperiences as a whole.

PedagogicalTheory PaperPart1: Context

I was assigned to teach grammar,level 3 lessons at INTO USF as part of my internship. INTO-USFillustrated two patterns of the language one pattern is the AcademicEnglish (AE) and the other is the General English (GE). These twopatterns are in conjunction with two pathway programs that weremodeled for the graduate and undergraduate students who needed to beadmitted fully to South Florida University. The paper centers ongrammar students who are in the third academic English program during2016 summer semester.

The educational program will bein operation for ten weeks during the summer semester rather thanduring spring. It presents intensive language training from thebeginner to more advanced levels. The program educates on thedevelopment of the academic skills as well as enhancing spoken andwritten English that will prepare the students for postgraduate orundergraduate study in the United States Universities. The programalso educates the English required for success in an AmericanUniversity or College, presents content-based curriculum andinnovative project. My primary focus will be on producing grammaticalforms for an efficient written and oral communication. Thegrammatical structures include present perfect continuous tenses,present perfect tenses, past perfect continuous tenses, past perfect,passive, and models. The students are reviewed based on ongoingassessment questions, writing presentations and essays. The firstmonth will concentrate on the perfect tenses.

StudentPopulation and Needs

The paper concentrates on level-3grammar class, which consists of 14 international students: two fromChina, two from Kuwait, nine from Saudi Arabia, and one from theUnited Arabs Emirates. The students have distinct experiences oflearning English Language. Some are new students while others arereturning students at INTO USF. The primary objective is to study thegrammatical structure of English and to have the capacity to producea high proficiency level of spoken and written English.

During the first day of theclasses, the instructor started with an icebreaker where each studentintroduced herself/himself and told the class about something theyhad never done before. In many instances, the students used thetenses wrongly and preferred to use simple past or simple presenttenses. A diagnostic exam was done during the same week for them toexamine their proficiency level based on grammatical structures theyhave learned and recognized the areas of complexities that need moreinstructions. The results presented a considerable number of studentswho have taken explicit instructions on the present perfect tense,their comprehension of the tenses are limited to simple past tense,present continuous tenses, simple present tenses and past continuoustenses. They failed to identify the meaning and the form of presentperfect, which is the focus of the paper.

ThePresent Perfect Tenses and Problems to the LearnersPresentPerfect Issues

The problems refer to previousresearch in the context of an investigation or refer to his findingsthat were found before. Present perfect tenses describes the tensesin the current form and illustrates the relevance of the results topresent day. The present perfect of the subject is often presented inthe general form. It could be taken into consideration. Nevertheless,the &quotpresentperfect&quot centerson what has been already done and what is understood as &quotpresentsimple.&quotThe present perfect forms illustrate a correlationbetween the present (the current study) and the past (priorresearch). In essence, a student will say what he/she has establishedand the contribution the students will make. It is also imperative topinpoint the variance existing in the current study. Thus, it isclear that improvement has been achieved.

The passive voice can bedescribed as the most occurring present perfect tense that can beused to portray the previous conclusions without referring to theoriginal paper. For instance, a researcher can start by:&quot……hasbeen studied it has been approved that….” The passive voicegives the capacity to shift the topic of the survey where it willhave more emphasis in the sentence. Present perfect tenses can beused to tell the history of an idea and describe the results ofstudies or draw conclusions (&quotit has led to the conclusionthat…..&quot).

Aspectsthat May Cause Particular ProblemsThePresent Perfect Tenses

The present perfect is utilizedto say that a given action happened at an unspecified time before themoment. Present perfect tenses cannot be used with particular timeexpression such as: &quotone year ago, yesterday, last week, thatday, when I lived in China, one day, etc. The present perfectillustrates unclear phrases such as &quotonce, never, ever, severaltimes etc.&quot The thought of unnamed period can be perplexing tothe English learners. Thus, it is to the best interest to discuss theperfect present. Some learners have difficulty in learning thepresent perfect. This is evidenced by their low score in varioustopics. Various factors cause this difficulty physiological aspectintroduces the body condition of the learner. On the other hand,psychological aspects emphasize on the way the students think. It mayinclude motivation, talents, interests, a special type of learner andmental health. The external factors of the student include the socialenvironment. The students may be affected by the people around theway they use present perfect and how correctly they use.

Whyit is difficult for ESL learners

ESL students produce sentencesthat are a bit strange to the native English user of the language.English present progressive tenses to express actions that are notscheduled in thesaurus dictionary in distinct form and their meaningis complicated to get. The English preposition is a common problemsince diverse languages utilize separate prepositions to convey someideas. It assists the students if several prepositions are used atone period. In the same regard, it helps students if they put thepreposition in the correct setting. The present perfect introducesthe idea that something happened, or it did not occur at all atunspecified time in the past. In essence, the exact time is notcritical, and this poses a problem to the students since they cannotconnect to the past and the present

Difficultyof Arab Learners of English

Arab students face challenges ofthe preposition. The preposition use is the most complex for EFL Arabstudents. The most common prepositions that pose this challengeincludes: &quotof, at,for, with, to and on&quot. TheMTI is a strategy that can be used in learning that most Arablearners retreat exclusively in acquiring poor classroom conditionswhere language exposure is limited to some few hours. Most of themistakes are derived from mother tongue’s influence as the primarysource. Previous studies support these findings. An Arabicpreposition is similar to the English one. The indigenous languageinterference relates to the issues of literal Arabic translations.The adult learners may be informed about their transfer strategy.Prepositions play the part of the grammatical maker, knowledgeextraction, and indexing because they suggest correlation of muchsignificance like instruments, comparisons and estimation.Prepositions are words that are placed before a pronoun or a noun toshow or indicate what relation an individual has, regarding adifferent thing.

The articles system is thehardest constituent for EFL students in the Arabic language. Master(2002) connects this complex nature of the English “article the”function words &quottheand a/n&quot, are notemphasized and are complicated for non-native speakers. The speakersof Arabic language have a problematic issue of definiteness. The nounphrase describes that the difficulty arising in the area of the nounphrase is the use of articles. Several errors occur in the usage ofarticles. One error is: indefinite articles are deleted where astudent fails to include it. The student may write the &quotindefiniteas definite form.&quot The students may align the indefinitearticles with the adjectives. A student may have difficulty in usingthe indefinite article with the many parts. For instance, a studentmay say. &quotTherewere a captivating text……received from.&quotIt is, therefore, clear that most of ESL/EFL from the Arab nationhave difficulty in the use of the article. The problem is dependenton the mother`s language of the learner. Oversimplification andovergeneralization were found to be the underlying source ofdifficulty.

Another challenge is thediscourse makers. Speechmaker is a sequential process that includesreviewing, planning, thinking, developing, presenting and editing. Inessence, it is an instrument used to establish the language andextend critical thinking in all disciplines. A study by Modhish`s(2012) discusses that EFL Arab students use contrastive, elaborative,contributory, and the subjects that relate to markers. It is evidentfrom their writing that DMs were overused. For instance, theyoverused &quotand,furthermore, as well as, also, etc.”The poor writing quality of the learners is related to sentences thatare deemed to be erroneous. Most of the educators depended entirelyon their mother`s tongue literal translation into English

Problemsof Present Perfect Tenses

The present perfect is animperative tense in the English language. Nevertheless, it giveslearners of the language a hard time since it uses the ideas andconcepts that are not in other languages. In essence, its structureis very simple. The problems arise with the usage of the tenses.There are distinctions between American and British English. Thepresent perfect is deductively taught by giving rules andhighlighting the form or with guided full exposure and discovery tothe meaning of the forms. Present perfect cannot be taught in onelesson but should initiate its various forms and use distinct levelsover a period differentiating them with past participle.

Students have several issues withthe present perfect. Intra-language issues include those that thestudents have an ideal aspect in their mother tongue and use itdifferently. Students may often mix-up based on the time and tensesand cannot distinguish between aspect and tense. The students at alower level often use the auxiliary wrongly, mix-up forms of presentperfect and past simple or combine them. Students also have issues todo with recognizing the contracted forms since they tend not to usethem. The students make mistakes with understanding the contractedforms. The problems arise as a result of the irregular verb at alower level and intermediate levels. Another complex issue is theprogressive issue. The student makes arguments based on the positionof &quotalready, just,still, and yet&quot.

This problem can be solved bydrilling, highlighting the forms and giving the students, amplepractice tasks that can assist. Students can be helped to notice whatgo hand in hand with the past participle or noun. Accuracy can beachieved through substitution tables at pre-intermediate level. If itis an assessment of a form is made, the activity can be morechallenging by allowing students to form change table. Skeletonsentences can be presented to the students to complete. Memorizationhas to be made for the irregular verbs. Nevertheless, students shouldbe assisted to find the regularities by giving them group verbsformed in the same way. Job game is a fun way of practicingprogressive form. Both perfect aspect and simple tense exist in theArabic language. Timelines assist in illustrating the distinctivenessbetween definite and indefinite time in the past. Different designsare to be used. The visual students use symbols. Present perfectprogressive or present perfect tenses poses one distinct challenge:students usually use mix-ups randomly. The difference inherent in themeaning is in most cases unclear to the students and thus making ithard for them to apply it in the right context.

Presentperfect and the simple past

Present perfect simple shows theunfinished actions that started in the past and are continuing to thepresent. For instance, &quotI have known Lisa for eight years now&quot.On the contrast, simple past deals with complete actions such as “Iknew Lisa for eight years before we lost touch”. The twodistinctions have a weak line and therefore it is hard for thestudents to bring out the differences. The present perfect can beused to talk about the present situation that happened at anunspecified time whereas the simple past expresses the point of timein the past.

Our workings on the languageillustrate five components: semantics, syntax, morphology,pragmatics/discourse and phonology. Phonology describes theintonation patterns and sounds associated with the spoken language.Interpretation includes the words and meaning of the terms related tothe phrase. Morphology describes the rules governing the use ofmorphemes. Syntax describes grammatical rules of languages.Pragmatics explains how we adjust our speech to the audience and theuse of language towards communication goal.

Designinga Diagnostic

To determine the ability of thestudent to use present perfect tenses appropriately, the studentswere required to respond in paragraph form. During the first meeting,the students were asked to introduce themselves and say somethingthat they had never done before. This task functions as an icebreakerfor the first student-teaching meeting. The task also operates as adiagnostic of the learner’s ability and use the present perfectbefore the instructions. The trainer wanted the students to producethe target structure naturally. The present perfect was thefundamental choice to use. However, no one used the tenses correctlyeven when the instructor designed it first.

The second part of the diagnosticconcentrated on the abilities of the student to produce written formsof the present perfect. In essence, the students were told to postthe writing prompt “whois Hillary Clinton?&quot.As a result, they were told to look for online information aboutClinton and then post 2-3 questions using the present perfect. Thisdiagnostic assessment is aimed at evaluating the capacity of thestudents to use the present perfect after regular instruction andalso identify the area of confusion. The discussion post assisted infunctionalizing the learned grammatical structure. The aim of havingthe student to post online is to give them space and time to thinkabout the use and the form of the tense and to form sentences thatare grammatically correct. The educator uses this diagnostic reviewto identify the area of complexity and to expand the research-basedlesson plans. The question and diagnostic results answered thequestion of why the students were not able to use present perfect inthe right setting.

The third diagnostic assessmentwas administered after an array of research-based lesson plans. Thestudents were asked to submit a well-written essay about HillaryClinton. This evaluation was aimed at understanding the ability ofthe student to make a distinction between the uses of differenttenses when to use the simple past, when to use the present perfecttenses and which verbs are impossible to use in present perfect. Allthe diagnostic assessments are found in Appendix A

One of the first things to takeinto consideration in language education is getting to understandyour student`s capacities based on their knowledge about the tenses.It is imperative to think of the diagnostic review so as to know theproficiency level of student and previous experience before anyinstruction occurs. A diagnostic review was modeled alongside mymentor to assess the awareness of the student based on the tenses,what they don`t know and what they know. The results presentedinformation about the previous knowledge of the student before theinstructor made any elevated expectations from the students. A set ofthe diagnostic review were created to identify the ability of thetarget student to comprehend the meaning and form of the presentperfect. One basic way was identifying the abilities of the studentsbefore any instruction, the other was after the instruction and thelast one was after a series of research-based lesson plans.

In designing the diagnostic, theconsiderations above were the main concerns. Since the summersessions are just ten weeks long and include ten major assignmentsthat are to be completed in class, the instructor needed the studentsreading and producing materials that would rationally fit with theobjectives and curriculum. When modeling the diagnostic review, thetime constraints remain to be the biggest problem to be considered bythe instructor. There were explicit assumptions of the instructorbefore the semester began. The instructor pre-prepared for the firstassessment and was concise cut from the first day of the class toconsider the present perfect as the integral of the paper.

DiagnosticResults

The diagnostic assessments weredispensed to fourteen students in grammar class, nine of them werereturning students while remaining five were new students. As part ofthe first day of classes, the instructor was inquisitive by natureabout their proficiency level. Therefore, the instructor asked themto introduce themselves. The students took an extensive, productionbased diagnostic during the first day of the class. Meanwhile, thetutor was evaluating their proficiency level as well as correctsgrammatical structures usage. The teacher then asked them to saysomething they had never done before and thus designing the firstturn.

The focus of the assignment isthe spoken utterance of the present perfect. There were significantissues that were noticed using the present perfect while writing downtheir errors in notes form. The students failed to realize that theywere required to give particular grammatical structure, and theirprimary concern was on introducing themselves. The assessmentpresented natural utterances that were free of the stress of beingevaluated or judged on grammatical structures.

The results showed that none ofthe students had the capacity to use the present perfect tenses inthe right context and correct form, and each had his/her particularerror. Most of the students were not able to use the majorcombination of the right grammatical structure of the present perfectwhich is the past participle verb and auxiliary verb. Less than halfof the class got the capacity to use auxiliary verbs. However, theychose the incorrect verb choice, either past or progressive form.Three of the students used the present progressive such as &quotIhave never eaten Chinese food&quot. Five students, on the otherhand, used the past form such as &quotI have never written plays&quot.The problem here indicated their previous knowledge on thegrammatical structure of the present perfect. Nevertheless, itreflected that they were not able to functionalize the tense in theright meaning and form.

The first pair of classes of thesemester focused on the present perfect. Although the studentsincluded some transitions in diagnostic response, the teacher feltthat, after the instructions had been present, students should havethe capacity to use and comprehend the present perfect in the correctmeaning and form despite the limitations they had. By the end of thecurrent excellentclass, the studentswere asked to look up for information about Hillary Clinton fromonline sources. They were required to form 2-3 sentences using thepresent perfect. Then, they were required to post them under CANVASdiscussions. The students were asked to ensure that they had newinformation besides the posts from their classmates. The purpose wasto check the ability to look up for information and use presentperfect with the right information. It may sound easy since it isjust two sentences and they can use the online information, butpractically it is complex. The main concerns of the students are theform. Now, they know the form but fail to understand how to apply it.It cannot be applicable in each action. Some of the informationoccurred in the past, so it should not be used in present perfectwhere each action and sentence has an explicit consideration based onpresent perfect meaning.

Once the student posts theirsentences under debate, the educator categorized and assessed themajor incorrect utterances presented by the students. Based on theform, most of the students wrote the sentences correctly based onpresent perfect since they had the subject first then the auxiliaryverb followed, and finally, the past participle. There were severalerrors regarding the past participle. Nevertheless, all the errorswere in usage. The students failed to functionalize the correct formin the right context. The present perfect has its individual setting.Nevertheless, for some actions and verbs, it cannot be used at all.The discussion was modeled and carried out to scrutinize and classifythe sources and types of the students` errors in comprehending thepresent perfect tense.

The review of the discussionposts was by classification of mistakes coder`s the errors wereclassified based on the distinction between reconstructed version andthe utterance of the learner. His classification was categorized intofour stages the addition of unnecessary elements omissions ofrequired elements misordering of the elements and misselection ofthe incorrect item. The errors of student were categorized based oncoder`s classification as presented in the table. From the frequencyof mistakes, it is evident that misselection was the mostfrequently shown error by the students. A list of error of frequenterrors is provided in the table.

Omission

Addition

Misselection

Misordering

Student 1

^ ^ ^

Student 2

^^

Student 3

Student 4

^^

Student 5

Student 6

^

^

Student 7

^ ^^

Student 8

^

^

Student 9

^

^

Student 10

^

^^

Student 11

^

Student 12

^

^

Student 13

^ ^

Student 14

The frequency of errors resultsindicates that misselection was the most frequent besides that theoverall observation from the post displayed that most of the studentsused the correct form. However, the tenses were overused andgeneralized. There is a massive mix-up between the usage of simplepast and present perfect. The instructor determined that extraassistance was needed by students in differentiating between thetenses so as to comprehend the distinction first and then use thecorrect tenses in the right setting. It can be said that errorsusually happen if the learner is yet to learn an item although thesubject has been covered in class. The instructor then concludes thatthe incurrent usage of language system elements. However, it can beself-corrected.

Although the students did well inselecting appropriate present perfect in the right setting, most ofthe students hardly used the present perfect correctly. The paltryusage of connecting the present perfect in diagnostic 1 falls shortof the automaticity of this skill. The overall results that werederived from diagnostic 2 show that most students had a problem inlinking present perfect in the right context whereas the tenses wereoverused and generalized.

TeachingMethods and Approaches

The study aimed to scrutinize theexperience of career educator who taught grammar to EFL collegestudent through the use of DDL for the first time. It is evident thatthe educators found data-driven learning an exciting and innovativemethod to teach present tenses, approve the ability of DDL to offermore incentives for students into the active learners. The resultsalso showed some setback that entailed DDL and the feasible ways forthe teachers to meet them. The challenge was inclusive of anincreased technical complexities and workload in designing the DDLmaterials and conducting tasks that were DDL-centered. However, theteachers ultimately expand their teachings by pursuing threefundamental practices: deploying concordance lines that werecomplete, minimizing the number of corpus. Also, entries were usedand the educator asked the students focus guiding queries.

Various education practices areassociated with inquiry-based learning such as in problem solving.Despite the diversity in inquiry, terminology in higher educationliterature, it is described as the approaches to teaching that areproblem-based and question driven. There is international interestbased on the inquiry role in the undergraduate courses and acrossvarious disciplines. It can be argued that memory oriented styles,traditional didactic of teaching will no longer meet the needs of thestudents. Critical inquiry pedagogy focuses on the social relationsand injustice of power and presents various inequalities, promotesand examines practices that have the possibility of transformingsocial relations or oppressive institutions through educationalpractices.

This may be differentiated fromthe rules written in the textbooks. It was found that corpus-informeddata brought satisfaction in learning grammar to the EFL learners.Grammatical knowledge does not guarantee fluency in language. Thereare diverse ESL students who perform well on grammar test but havelittle capacity to speak or understand English. Contrastingly, mostof the native English speakers have a complexity in explaining rulesof grammar. The researchers have distinguished between the focus onforms in second language transition (Doughty, 2003).

Focusing on the form is thepurposeful teaching grammar to present a comprehension of grammar inthat comprehending alone will give a capacity for the languagelearner to use the form correctly. On the other hand, focus on theform refers to conveying grammar to the attention of the students ofthe language as part of the communicative practice of the language.It is conceded that focusing on grammar for the sake of language doesless to contribute the accuracy during communication while ensuringthat the ESL learners are aware of the structure as part ofcommunicative language practice can add to the development of greatercommunication accuracy.

In a bid to maximize the academicgrowth of students, one of the best tools that the instructors canuse is the explicit instructions. The clear instructions focus oncritical content where the educator teaches strategies, skills,concepts, vocabulary terms and rules that will motivate the studentsshortly and match the instructional needs of the students. Theimplicit instructions break down the complex strategies and skillsinto smaller units of instruction. Complex skills are segmented intosmaller units of new materials to addresses the cognitive processingdemands, overloading and the capacity of the working memory of thestudent.

An explicit practical instructioncan be viewed as presenting an array of instructional supportsthrough logical sequencing or selection of the content and break downthe material into instructional units that are manageable based onthe cognitive abilities of the students. The instruction deliveryincludes clear demonstrations and description of skills followed bytimely feedback and supported practice. The primary method is carriedthroughout high levels of involving the educator. Nevertheless, oncethe student succeeds, the support system of the teacher is withdrawnsystematically, and the students move towards the independentperformance.

The study into &quotfocus onform&quot of ESL grammar instruction recommends three feasible waysthat contribute to the development of the communicative ability. Inthe first case, direct ESL grammar may assist in raising theconsciousness of the learner of the form in which they have noticedwhen they hear or read it in that the students may recognize thefeature and listen to it in the long run (Ellis, 2003 SharwoodSmith, 1981). The second reason for the grammatical knowledge is thatit serves as a device to the memory thus assisting the ESL learnersto remember how certain form are produced until they can present itautomatically (Blair, 1982).

The ESL grammar instructions candefine floodingstudents withinstances of a form that infrequently occurs, giving them moreintensive practice with the form that they might not encounter intheir everyday speech except on weekly basis. Knowledge of grammardoes not yield fluent language speakers. There are diverse ESLlearners who do exceptionally on grammar tests. Nevertheless, theyhave little capacity to speak or understand English. Contrastingly,most of the native speakers who speak flawlessly have a complexity inexplaining the rules of grammar. TALL ESL system emphasizes on formtechnique for grammar instructions. In the same regard, TALL presentgrammar in a way that it does not need the ESL learners to develop arich foundation of grammatical terms but rather helps the learner toremember the particular structure of the utterances. Instead ofpresenting ESL with rules of discussion, Tall prefers enlivenedexamples which focus on the correlation between the meaning and theform. Just in time grammar defines the usage of grammatical exercisesand explanations presented as part of the activity-based approach toESL learning where the performance of the activities is paramount,and presentation of grammar is the tool used to increase accuracy andfacilitate communication.

Corpus is a massive compilationof reliable texts in the electronic design that is modeled torepresent a variety of language. However, it is controversial even inthe realm of corpus linguistics. The DDL tasks are thought to be partof a student-centered research approach, and some of the experiencedteachers believe that most of the nonmajor students lack proficiencyand motivation to engage in such activities. CALL is a greatsignificance and importance in acquiring of second languages. Thereare various journals devoted to research on topics. Most of the ESLtextbooks now have accompanying websites with interactive privatestudies. It is clear that most of the learners are searching onlinesources in distinct ways that are not similar to data drivenlearning. This is a procedure that may be wholly encouraging by theireducator at the same time staying obscured in the literature of datadriven learning. This procedure is present in unique approaches thatseem appealing. Extensive preparation is limited by space and thus,the students cannot research on detailed theories DDL. The author ofthis study claims that DDL are effective since they create aninstance where research can be done. Higher motivation level is, ofcourse, desirable in this course.

ClassroomPractice and Reflection PaperPart2:TeachingProcedures and Justification of Choices

Regarding the diagnostic results,it is evident that the ESL students are facing a lot of complexitiesin understanding the differences between simple past and presentperfect. The diagnostic assessment that was submitted to this grammarclass showed that the students were confused between present perfectand the simple past based on the usage and meaning, and they overusedthe present perfect in various aspects in trying to attain the timelypost without getting the distinction between the two tenses.

Thus, in a class setting whereone of the primary objectives is to use the present perfect inwritten and spoken settings, it is vital to attain these goals andassesses the abilities of the students to produce a grammaticalstructure in written and spoken context appropriately. From therequirement of an institution as the primary objectives alongside theneeds of the student, it is ideally perfect to identify the needs ofthe students and assess them as they make progress.

Three main goals were modeled tobe attained after an array of research-based lesson plans. In thefirst instance, the students should comprehend and realize thedistinction between simple past and present perfect regarding itsmeaning. Secondly, the students should exhibit the prerequisite toidentify the time signals for the present perfect when comparing itto the ones aimed for simple past. Thirdly, the students shouldpractice and use the two tenses consequently in written and spokensettings. To attain the objectives, extensive research was conductedto gibbet the lesson plans with a theory to practical on inquisitivelearning, DDL and “focus on forms” and “focus on form”approaches. The approaches methods of educating above were founduseful in teaching the present perfect alongside the hypothesis ofthe instructor on the effectiveness of discovery learning techniquesin class (teaching inductive grammar).

The ELP (English LanguageProgram) at INTO-USF present the four market of the best practice.These includes: engage student through student-centered tasks, teachlanguage through content, include the culturally responsive teachingsin lessons and assess students through various techniques. The threemarkers are constituents that can be incorporated into three basiclesson sketches. The other constituent is something that the educatorrequires to be aware of during the lessons.

The first lesson as presented inAppendix B was modeled to have an array of inquiry of actionsexplicit instruction discovers the difference and then rulesapplication. Each student was given six sentences, each of the twohas the same agents but with diverse time forms and signals (one isin the present perfect and one in the simple past). The students weretold to identify the tenses without indicating which is or offeringthem terms. The students were then asked to cite the distinctionbetween each of the sentences. The first sentence was the hardest,and the other moved smoothly. The students worked individually andidentified and mentioned the difference. The intentions of the taskare to ensure that each of the students has their hypothesis andrationale and converse it with the class. The tasks took around tenminutes that were followed by student-student discussions andteacher-student discussions. A considerable number of students did anexemplary job in justifying their answers based on the time and formof signals. However, when it came to the meaning, a considerablenumber of students felt the same. After this activity, an explicitexplanation was provided to illustrate distinction between presentperfect and simple past.

The educator used textbook sinceINTO USF is syllabus that is content based, then she presented themwith an array of sentences alongside time signals explanations inpower point slides. Thus, everyone will be available to see thesentences. The instructor offered a concise explanation to use thepresent perfect and simple past, why it is complex, usage and timesignals indicate tenses. The students were given a handout after theexplicit explanation. They have to work in pairs and debate on theanswers. Most of the students made complete sentences with the rightanswers to the questions. The students did an excellent job not tocomplete the sentences but also in justifying their answers andrationalizing the differences.

The second lesson was modeled togive the student some review on the differences between the twotenses, identify the tenses in the corpus and determine the use oftenses in the listening script. The teacher assessed what had beencovered previously based on the differences between “simple pastand present perfect”. The instructor wrote four sentences on theboard and asked the students to complete the either the sentences bywriting down time or a number.

After the assessment part, theinstructor played audio from the textbook. The students were supposedto listen twice, during the second time they were to write thesentences in simple past, present perfect continuous and presentperfect. Once they wrote sentence in their notes, the instructor drewthree columns on board and played the audio. After each of thesentence, the teacher paused and asked one student to write sentencesunder one of the columns on board based on his/her thoughts. The aimof the tasks was to ensure that the students think and identify thegrammatical structure and use the “simple past and the presentperfect” in listening task. The corpus-based work was given to thestudents. The instructors expounded on the definition of the corpusand how it is necessary to use authentic grammatical structureinstances. COCOA was then used where students were showed how to findsentences in full context using a time signal. The teacher began thelesson with the word yesterdayand then listedseveral sentences appeared on the screen and then they were shown howthe sentences occur in the pure form. The instructor then asked themto create groups and workout on identifying the verbs and forms ineach of the sentences.

Apparently, there should be anapplication task where the students are divided into groups whereeach of the group had crayons, plain papers, and slip. The papersheet indicated a celebrity. Each team was made to look up forinformation about their favorite celebrity. Each group was made tolook up for information about a celebrity and prepare a five-minutepresentation to the class. In the same regard, the students wererequired to draw on plain graphs, pictures, tables but not to draftsentences. They were required to use simple present or past perfectwhen performing. The purpose of the task was to ensure that thestudent lookup for and synthesized information and presented it toclass

The goal of the activities is thespoken production aimed at the grammatical structures. The studentsare supposed to find information in present perfect and simple past.The idea of the event is that, previously, they had a lot of mistakesregarding the choice of the right tense when speaking about the lifeof a famous person. When diagnostic assessment was made in HillaryClinton`s post, one of the biggest problems was the overuse ofpresent perfect when talking about a person`s life.

The third lesson as presented inAppendix D has centered entirely on an independent production oftargets Las inherent in the initial compositions made by the student.The experience was required to include independent production byreviewing activity since it was the last set of the project. Based onthis assessment, I knew I needed to give the student what they needto do in diagnostic.

The teacher went back to thediscussion post about Hillary Clinton and reviewed the sentencesindividually and corrected them with students. This action was aimedto ensure that the students realize their mistakes using the presentperfect and how they overuse the present perfect over simple past,and the way there exist several events to use present perfect. Afterrationalizing the correction and identifying the errors, the studentswere arranged into groups and asked to compose well-written essaysfrom the online resource and discussion post using the correct tenseseither present perfect or simple past. This activity is aimed atmaking the student realize their mistakes and to give feedback anddiscuss when adding more information. Each of the team was asked overto show their project on the overhead projector, and the teacheralong with students gave each team constructive feedback based on theessay.

Reflection:Lessons and Overall Experience

Each of the lessons illustrationof the difference between simple past and the present perfect wasexceptional. Each of the experience had distinct purposes andobjectives, with the initial lesson being the most focused ondetailed explanation and presentation of the difference betweenpresent perfect and simple past. The second focused on realizationand identification of the language spoken and form production of theintended grammatical structure and the third focused on understandingand identification of spoken production and grammatical production ofthe proposed grammatical structure. The third focused onindependently written production and served as diagnostic assessmentpost.

I am sure that these objectivesworked better to give exposure to students to practice with thedifference between the present perfect and simple past and presentperfect from comprehending their meaning, getting to understand thegrammatical structure and spoken texts to apply them in speaking andwriting.

TheLessons

The first lesson was exceptional.I knew I would need to contemplate on the arrangement of thecorrelating present perfect. I needed the students to be familiarwith INTO USF as part of my internship. INTO-USF showed two patternsof the language one pattern is the Academic English (AE) and GeneralEnglish (GE) program along with two pathway programs that weremodeled for the graduate and undergraduate students. I also learnedthat students had problems when it comes to present perfect tenses.During the first day of the classes, the instructor started with anicebreaker where each student introduced herself/himself and tell theclass about something they have never done before. The presentperfect is an important tense in the English language since it gavelearners of the language a hard time. In essence, its structure wasvery simple. The problems were derived from the usage of the tenses.The present perfect was deductively taught by giving rules andhighlighting the form or with guided full exposure and discovery tothe form in meaning and at a higher authentic context level.

It is clear that present perfectcannot be taught in one lesson but should initiate its various formsand use distinct levels over a period differentiating them with pastparticiple. After checking in the example that was given by thestudents, they were encouraged to check for more examples relating totenses. Students had several issues with the present perfect. Afterchecking on the examples that they had presented, they were adept atidentifying intra-language issues. These issues included those thatthe learners had an ideal aspect in their mother’s language andused it differently. It was noted that the students mixed up based onthe time and tenses and could not distinguish between aspect andtense.

The assessment part was found tobe more imperative. The second lesson was initiated seven days afterthe first lesson. The students were more excited about it: I believein shifting the week`s approach and dynamics of this class as anarray of the team games. All learners who engaged in the first lessoncompleted the activity. My objective for the second lesson was aimedat allowing the students to produce targets that connect presentperfect, and all learners were able to engage in third and secondactivities. The students completed each of the tasks in the secondlesson quite successfully. Nevertheless, some issues arose. Forinstance, the students at a lower level often used the auxiliarywrongly, mixed-up forms of present perfect and past simple or combinethem. The groups did not succeed in the second task. The studentsalso had issues to do with recognizing the contracted forms sincethey tended not to use them. The students made mistakes withunderstanding the contracted forms since they could not usethemselves.

The problems arose as a result ofthe irregular verb at a lower level and intermediate levels. Theperformed well in the last task it was modeled to be a bitcomplicated. All along, I identified that I needed the learners toget an opportunity for autonomous practice with the task and my tutormade an argument to keep the energy and competition high. To succeed,the learners were told to post the writing prompt. The discussionpost assisted in functionalizing the learned grammatical structure.The aim of having the student to post online was to give them spaceand time to think about the use and the form of the tense and to formsentences that are grammatically correct.

This technique in the thirdactivity had some issues. The focus of the assignment was the spokenutterance of the present perfect. There were significant issues thatwere noticed using the present perfect while writing down theirerrors in notes form. The students failed to realize that they wererequired to give particular grammatical structure, and their primaryconcern was on introducing themselves. The assessment presentednatural utterances that were free of the stress of being evaluated orjudged on grammatical structures. Although this was not the mainproblem, it is an exception that I needed to motivate the students toconsider this issue. In essence, whatever I did was aimed atinforming the learners in class. This is potential mixed-up in onesetting and this can be improved greatly.

The third diagnostic assessmentwas administered after an array of research-based lesson plans wasdiscussed. The students were asked to submit a well-written essayabout Hillary Clinton. This evaluation was aimed at understanding theability of the student to make a distinction between the uses ofdifferent tenses when to use the simple past, when to use the presentperfect and which verbs are impossible to use in present perfect.

I received positive feedback frommy mentor on this lesson. She gave me constructive comments thatrelated to the comments I gave on the second task and the way I dealtwith present perfect issues. One of the first things that I took intoconsideration in language education was getting to understand thestudent`s capacities based on their knowledge about the tenses. Adiagnostic review was modeled alongside my mentor to assess theawareness of the student based on the tenses, what they don`t knowand what they know. The results presented information about theprevious knowledge of the student before the instructor made anyelevated expectations from the students. The main suggestions of mymentor were that it would have been imperative to find instances ofpresent perfect and tenses in the right context and ensure that thelearners avoid over-generalizing them.

In the meantime, I think it wouldbe necessary nevertheless, time is a limiting factor. After thestudents completed writing down the paragraphs, there was less timeleft for the learners. Most probably, I would have given themhomework that needed them to focus on the spoken utterances. Thestudents failed to realize that they were required to give particulargrammatical structure, and their primary concern was on introducingthemselves. The assessment presented natural utterances that werefree of the stress of being evaluated or judged on grammaticalstructures.

TheExperience as a Whole

The ultimate session derived fromthe assignment was presented one week before the summer sessionended. In writing this, the learners have already completed theirfinal projects. Whatever is written on their papers is reallymotivating me since most of the learners presented a well written anda long piece of their tasks. All learners were successful in usingpresent perfect. It is thus satisfying to see them progress.Initially, there were diverse issues that were encountered. Some ofthe problems include problems based on the position of &quotalready,just, still, and yet&quot. This issue can be solved by drilling,highlighting the forms and giving the students with ample practicetasks can assist. Students can be supported helped to notice what goalongside the past participle or noun. Correctness can be trainedwith substitution tables at pre-intermediate level.

I was fortunate to collectfeedback from the students. The feedback can be seen in Appendix Ewhere learners gave their feedback without indicating their names. Itwas encouraging to get positive feedback. The students reported thatthe three lessons discussing the complexity involved in presentperfect were of great assistance, and they understood more of it thanthey did before the lessons began. Also, it is imperative since thethree lessons can be referred as the most important by at least twostudents. Previously, I felt that the session would be the least tosucceed.

The assignment and the entireattachment period was massive activity. The study that I went throughin organizing the session was different from other preparation I hadundergone previously in class since whatever I have come across isbased on lessons modeled from class projects. I feel that after doingand creating lesson-based research (both the needs of the studentsand literature) and then getting to see the lessons in actionalongside their results, demonstrate a closer correlation betweenresearch and teaching. It is, therefore, imperative to note thatparticular recommendations are involved in teaching linking presentperfect in the literature and writing out and taking generalrecommendations on detailed lessons were an exciting process.

I have been away from particularstudents` needs and the importance of the context for a while.Nevertheless, enacting the lesson plans enhanced that belief.Although I was applying suggestions approaches derived from theliterature on the complexity of present perfect and ESL students, inthe end, the needs of my students and the course objectives formedthe basis of what happened in the plan of the lesson. Essentially,this was accurate given the unique context of teaching the summersessions it is not at all times the case to achieve these goals andrelate to the students requirements in a short period. The balancebetween the recommendations derived from the research, curriculum andstudent’s need is something I will strive to attain in future evenwhen with limited timeframe.

I am happy to have gotten thecapacity to teach and develop the lessons and carry them out withseveral students. It was rewarding to see the progress. I amfortunate that I got a chance to have a positive impact on students.Also, the excellent mentors who came to assist me at one point intime were of great significance since they helped me in designingclass lessons. The experience is amazing, and I will carry it on andassist other people in my profession as an educator.

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AppendixAAppendixBAppendixC

Models of teaching andlearning are critical pieces to instructional planning and deliverybecause they help educators:

1) Develop highly tuned and morevaried professional repertoires

2) allow them to reach largernumbers for students more effectively

3) Create either more uniform, orvaried, or effective instructional events, guided by targetedsubjects, content, or processes

4) Understand curricular focibetter, especially as different models can be matched specifically toboth learning outcomes and/or targeted learning populations

5) Gain needed insights into whysome methods work with some learners, while others do not

AppendixDAppendixE