Essentials of the Sociology and the Development


Sociology refers to the process by which an individual acquires anidentity in a particular society. It enables an individual tofamiliarize with certain norms such as social standards and behaviorsof society. Socialization has influenced and developed a newunderstanding of the concept applied in the different aspect of life.The paper concentrates on the perilous year of socialization designedby Mead, Piaget, Freud, Erickson, Gilligan and Cooley (Stolley,2005). Cooley, Horton, and Charles developed a theory dealing withperception. Children can acquire a particular understanding of howother people perceive them in the society as they interact with eachother. Their behaviors are reflected as if they are in a mirror. Thesituation enables them to develop judgment and self-feeling of otherin the society. Mead, Herbert, and George deal with the role ofdifferentiation. Children tend to imitate the elderly people in thecommunity, and this enables them to understand how they are expectedto behave. Children mostly take the role of their parent or theindividual who often affect their lives. Sigmund Freud focuses on thepsychoanalytic that influence the personality of an individual.Developing child may be affected by superego, id or the ego. Failureof the child to establish one of the following characteristics willlead to antisocial behaviors. Jean Piaget cognitive development modeloccurs in four stages. The final stage ensures that the kid can solvevarious problems affecting their lives through the application of thegeneral principles. Carol Gilligan and Lawrence Kohlberg developed atheory that state children are enabled to think morally. In theirdeveloping stages, they can understand that their parents play asignificant role during their current stage. Children are aware thattheir parents are wise, and therefore, they are in a position toadhere to their directions and authorities. Erik Erickson identifiesthe development of the encompassed stages. The critical part of thethird event occurs at stage five where teenagers cross from childhoodto adolescence stages.

Explanation of the Sociology

The paper focuses on the self-development, self-image, and theself-concept. The purpose of the integration enables as to gain newideas and strategies applicable in life.

Charles Horton Cooley

Charles discovered that when we interact with others, we perceive howthese people think about us. Therefore, an insinuation appears as ifwe are viewing ourselves in a mirror at the time of interaction.Through evaluation of positive or negative perception, we developfeelings and judgment that led to the embarrassment or the pride(Joas, 2010). Misguided perception, however, resulted in a differentinterpretation of the concept. Charles stated that other people inthe society display our impression in that we look at them for ourdescription. The principle developed by Charles plays a significantrole during child development. Children will always feel delightedafter they receive a standing ovation, or they are cheered at aftertheir play. This effect encourages them to perform even better nexttime they are invited. In a verse visa occasion, participants arefrustrated and may perform poorly the next opportunity. Perceptionacquired during early ages continues to reflect our image even whenwe are grown up although the effect appears in a reduced state(Carrothers et al., 2003). In conclusion, our self-imageagrees with the surrounding environment.

George Herbert Mead

George conducted research from 1863 to 1931 and found thatinteractionism plays a significant role in a developing child. In hisresearch, he found that developing children like to take the role ofthe grown up and this enable them to understand the expectation oftheir parent and change their behaviors. For instance, children taketheir dolls and command them to do as they perceive from theirparents and in so doing, they place a better understanding of theexpectation of their seniors. An observation illustrates thatchildren take the role of the individuals’ who are close to them,and the older children take the role of the Society leaders. Thisenables them to understand the role of the society and the communityas a whole, therefore, demonstrating generalization of the community.The description of the stages various as the child grow. In theinitial stage, infant imitates the behaviors of their grown upwithout really understanding the concept. For instance, if they comeacross their parents rubbing their berry, they may emulate the sameprocedure and describe it as funny(Stolley, 2005). The next stageinvolves play where they engage in a group of the participant. Eachtakes a role and act as he/she does on the play. Characters traitsare viewed from television, parents, and teachers. As they attain anage between 7 and 9, they learn to anticipate different role in thegame and thus enabling them to understand the rule of society. Meaddescribed personal perspective in term of ‘me and I’. Thecreative part of the self is composed of the ‘I’ section, and`ME` part illustrate the passive part of a person.

Moral Development and Cognitive and Personality

Unconscious personality and the Sigmund Freud conducted research in1856 to 1939 focusing on the individual character. Sigmund emphasizedon the biological and unconscious forces that affect a singleinterception. As illustrated, Sigmund found that certain characterssuch as the ego, id, and the superego pray a significant role indeveloping their personality. The biological instincts encode the idpart that entails character and the selfishness. The vital elementillustrates their need for food and the genetic satisfaction. Aschildren grow and develop, they understand that not all their needsand necessity can be satisfied at a particular time. In this stage oftheir development, they can read virtual such as the society norm andvalues that enable them to adapt superego (Roberts, 2004). Theadopted concept allows them to have a typical drive in their sociallives. Superego theory, therefore, helps them to shape their personalbehaviors.

Cognitive and Piaget Development

Children acquire their self-drive together with their personalitythrough cognitive development. Piaget founded the research in 1954.The concept occurs in four main stages namely sensorimotor,preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational. In theirdevelopment stages, children can develop principles that enable themto solve their problems.

Erickson and Identity Development

In 1980, Erickson developed an identification that focused onrecognition of the fact. He described eight stages that avail duringthe development of the child. In the first four stages, childrenlearn to trust, have self-control among other core principles. Inconclusion, Cooley, Horton, and Charles developed a theory deals withperception. Children acquire a particular understanding of how otherpeople perceive them in the society as they interact with each other.


Carrothers, R. M., &amp Benson, D. E. (2003). Symbolicinteractionism in introductory textbooks: coverage and pedagogicalimplications. Teaching Sociology, 162-181.

Joas, H. (2010). GH Mead: A contemporary re-examination of histhought. MIT press.

Roberts, B. (2004). George Herbert Mead: The theory and practice ofhis social philosophy. Ideology and Consciousness, 2, 81-106.

Stolley, K. S. (2005). The basics of sociology. Greenwood PublishingGroup.