Diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Alziemers

DIABETES, HYPERTENSION, COPD &amp ALZHEIMER 7

Diabetes,hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Alziemersdisease

SectionI

Answerto question 1:

DiabetesMellitus (DM) is a persistent, enduring condition that hampers thebody’s ability to take up glucose for energy purposes (Mellitus,2005). There are various types of diabetes mellitus but all of them affectinvolve the digestive system of the body. The body converts thesugars and carbohydrates contained in the food into glucose thatprovides energy for the cells. However, for the cells to take up theglucose and use it for energy they need a hormone called insulin.Diabetes mellitus either hinders the body from producing adequateinsulin, or affects the cells ability to use the produced insulin ora combination of the two.

Answerto question 2:

DMtype 1 (Insulin –dependent diabetes) is also referred to asjuvenile-onset diabetes because it starts at childhood (Khardori&amp Griffing, 2015). The primary cause of DM type is areaction whereby the body produces antibodies that destroy itspancreas. Therefore, the damaged pancreas does not make insulin,meaning the body cells cannot take up the glucose. Type 1 diabeteshas various impacts on the body starting with impaired eyesight ortotal blindness because it damages the tiny blood vessels in the eye.The condition also increases a person’s risk to other serioushealth complications such as the kidney failure, heart disease andstroke.

Answerto question 3:

IfDM is left unchecked and unmanaged for a long time too much sugaraccumulates in the blood causing severe damages to the nervoussystem. According to Mellitus (2005), high levels of glucose in theblood damaging the small blood vessels supplying the nerves withoxygen and nutrients. When nerves are deprived oxygen and nutrientsthey fail to function properly, meaning they either desist fromsending signals too slowly or at the unexpected times. The nervedestroys resulting from diabetes mellitus is regarded as neuropathy.

Answerto question 4:

Aperson suffering from Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is at the risk ofdeveloping the following complications:

  1. Cardiovascular diseases

  2. Nerve damage (Neuropathy)

  3. Kidney damage(Nephropathy)

Answerto question 5:

Diabetesincreases a person’s risk of developing kidney complications.According to Mellitus(2005),the kidney is composed of millions of minute blood vessels(glomeruli) which are responsible for filtering the waste from theblood. Diabetes damages the delicate filtering system impairing itsability to remove waste from the blood. If diabetes is left uncheckedfor a long time, it can cause severe damage leading to kidneyfailure.

SectionII

Answerto question 1:

Hypertension(HTN) commonly referred to as High Blood Pressure is a state in whichthe strength of the blood against the artery walls is extremelyunusual to a point that it makes health problems like the heartdisease among others (Pietrangelo,2014).HTN affects the blood circulatory system as it is determined by levelof the amount of blood the pumped to the heart.

Answerto question 2:

Thevascular system transports oxygenated blood to all parts of the body.Healthy arteries enlarge slightly as the blood is pumped throughthem. According to Pietrangelo(2014),high blood pressure makes the arteries widen too much increasingtheir risk to damage. Over time, the small tears on the artery wallsform scar tissues.

Answerto question 3:

Hypertensionaffects the functioning of the various organs of the body such as thekidneys and the brain. The primary role of the kidney is to filterwaste from the blood. According to Pietrangelo (2014), if the kidneyslack a good supply of oxygenated blood, they fail to functionproperly. If the condition is left uncontrolled for a long time,scarring can occur leading to kidney failure, a condition that callsfor dialysis or kidney transplant. The brain is another body organwhich cannot function well without a good supply of oxygen. Moreover,when the blood supply to any part of the brain is cut off, it causesthe death of cells which can lead to severe or irreparable damagedepending on the part of the brain affected.

Answerto question 4:

Aperson suffering from hypertension (HTN) is at a high risk ofdeveloping:

  1. coronary artery disease

  2. Stroke

  3. Kidney failure

Answerto question 5:

Hypertensionis a risk factor of coronary artery disease. Pietrangeloexplains that high blood pressure stresses the blood vessels causingthem to block or weaken (2014). Moreover, hypertension can causenarrowing of heart arteries increasing their risks to clog from bloodclots of fatty materials that break off from the lining of thevessel. In the case where the left ventricle of the heart thickens,it becomes inefficient in pumping blood. The trapped blood clots inthe arteries hence narrowing or blocking them, causing stroke orheart attack.

SectionIII

Answerto question 1:

Chronicobstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a combination of lungconditions that make it difficult to breath out air from the lungs(Senior&amp Anthonisen, 1998).The condition leads to shortness of breath or the feeling of beingexhausted. Just like chronic asthma, COPD affects the respiratorysystem and it is difficult to distinguish between the two.

Answerto question 2:

Allthe oxygen (O2)circulatedin the blood is picked from the lungs and all the carbon dioxide(CO2)isdeposited there. According to Senior&amp Anthonisen (1998),emphysema, one of the lung condition enclosed in the term COPD, leadsto the destruction of the alveoli, the minute sacs that allow O2toget into the blood. The damage of air sacs leads to the formation oflarge air bags (bullae) in the lungs. The bullae lack the ability toexchange O2andCO2likethe normal tiny air sacs. Moreover, the bullae can become very largemaking it difficult for the lung tissue adjacent to it unable toenlarge normally, making the organ inefficient. Therefore, exhalingCO2andtaking in sufficient O2becomesa difficult task for the lungs.

Answerto question 3:

WhenCOPD becomes severe at advanced stages, it forces the heart tooverwork to pump enough blood to the impaired lungs. The overworkingcan easily lead to heart failure. COPD hinders the exchange of O2andCO2,which is a crucial process for the normal functioning of the heart.

Answerto question 4:

Duringphysical exercises, breathing becomes fast so as to take in moreoxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. For a person with COPD, it becomesdifficult to meet this demand leading to shortness of breath.However, according to Aliverti&amp Macklem (2001),it is important for COPD patients to undertake short and lightphysical exercises because they help in improving their healthcondition.

Answerto question 5:

Oneof the health complications related with COPD is a collapsed lung.According to Senior&amp Anthonisen (1998),during the process of inhaling, the chest muscles expand making thelungs stretch as they inflate. On the other hand, during exhaling,the muscles relax causing the lungs to deflate. COPD can create aweak spot in the lung making it to burst during this process. If thelung bursts, the air escapes from the lung into the chest and othersurrounding spaces making the organ to collapse.

SectionIV

Answerto question 1:

Alzheimerdisease is a chronic, permanent brain condition characterized bygradual but continued loss of brain tissue and function (MacGill, 2016).The condition affects the central nervous system resulting tosymptoms such as impaired memory, confusion, behavioral changes, andimpaired judgment among others.

Answerto question 2:

Apartfrom the central nervous system, Alzheimer also affects the digestiveand neuromuscular systems of the body. According to MacGill, people diagnosed with Alzheimer have difficulties swallowingwithout chocking (2016). Pneumonia is a common infection among peoplewith Alzheimer and it is associated with swallowing difficultieswhich can be fatal when food or liquids accidently enter the airways.Mac Gill also points that Alzheimer affects the neuromuscular systemsince the patients lose the ability to properly use their muscles(2016). During the last stages of Alzheimer, the patients typicallylose the ability to walk and in extreme cases cannot maintain a safeposture while seated.

Answerto question 3:

Ichoose Alzheimer because it is affecting many old people in oursociety. I aim to know some of its causes and whether it can bediagnosed early to ensure the appropriate preventive measures aretaken.

References

Aliverti,A., &amp Macklem, P. T. (2001). How and why exercise is impaired inCOPD. Respiration,68(3),229-239.

Khardori,R.&amp Griffing G.T. (2015). Type1 Diabetes Mellitus. Retrieved from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/117739-overview

MacGill M. (2016). Alzheimer`s Disease: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments.Retrieved from: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/159442.php

Mellitus,D. (2005). Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus.Diabetescare,28,S37.

PietrangeloA. (2014). Theside effects of high blood pressure on the body. Retrieved from: http://www.healthline.com/health/high-blood-pressure-hypertension/effect-on-body

Senior,R. M., &amp Anthonisen, N. R. (1998). Chronic obstructive pulmonarydisease (COPD). Americanjournal of respiratory and critical care medicine,157(4),S139-S147.