DEVIL IN CHINESE POLITICS 8
Devilin Chinese Politics
Althoughthe principles of communism govern China, it is gradually adoptingthe capitalism approach. The model of governance in the country hasbeen under scrutiny by numerous scholars, with many regarding it as“socialism with Chinese characteristics”. The state is under theleadership of Communist Party of China (CPC), which has the authorityinstituted in the country’s constitution and structure. China`spolitical structure is spread out on lower cadres of powerestablishment. Since the late 1970s, the state has liberalized itseconomic climate. The move caused reduced restrictions on trade andcreation of new business systems in the country. The leadership ofthe country supports “democratic centralism” of governance, buttheir system is not purely socialist.
Sincethe ancient times, the state has engaged in practices and values thatpreserve their identity and interests. However, it is noteworthy thatthe nation has not been faithful to its words and norms. Thepolitical system is hard to understand, with many arguing that it has‘Chinese characteristics.` Presently, China is a threat to majorsocio-economic powerhouses in the world, including, the US andRussia. The political culture among the Chinese has grown over theyears, with the adoption of other values from the western world.
Fromthe literal meaning of the term ‘devil’, we recognize that it isa figure that is widely unknown. Furthermore, it does deeds that arebeneficial to its survival. At times, the devil may do actions thatruin the lives of others. The figure appears friendly to the targetto help achieve its goals. The devil in politics can be said to beengaging in socio-political activities, which sometimes cause harm toother players. Often, the actors lack a particular system hence,making it difficult to understand their strategies. The world, in itscurrent formation, necessitates the nations to come together to solvethe global challenges (Tismaneanu, 2012). In politics, ideologiesdefine the institutions in a country operate under the adopteddoctrines.On most occasions, it describes how power is to be allocated.Political philosophiesareevident in political parties and institutions. The concepts play asignificant role in influencing both the human behavior and politicsin a given nation.
Intrying to examine the ‘devil in Chinese politics’, we need tounderstand the political system and its establishment over the years.In the mid-20th century, Chairman Mao believed that Communism wasunder threat by the capitalist elements in his party. As such, hecreated socio-cultural turmoil that affected millions of people inthe country. The idea behind the creation of Red Guards was theyouths are energetic and fanatical. Mao started an initiative to makepeople believe in his ideas. Intellectuals were mistreated by theauthorities, with some losing their jobs. In fact, people wouldbetray their close friends and relatives who turned against the viewsof Chairman Mao. There were severe restrictions on literature as itwas believed that literary work could be used to influence thesubjects. In another offensive action, the loyalists of Chairman Maoforcibly took away kids from the parents who did not believe in thecommunists thoughts (Fu, 1993).
Anotherimportant consideration in addressing the matter is to examine howthe Chinese culture has transformed since the ancient times. Westernculture has varied challenges that require input from the Taoistbeliefs, as identified by Lao Tzu. It is notable that the mainstreamChinese culture has not fully embraced Laozi`s ideals. Nonetheless,the perspective continues to influence the Chinese identity andcharacter. The idea is to harmonize morals and knowledge to conformto the expectations and needs of the contemporary society. We do notwant a situation whereby the Western culture moves from experience tomorals or Confucian culture on morals creating knowledge. Laoziidentified that the perspective of ‘no knowledge, no morals’ canhelp optimize the benefits of the subject. His worry is whetherknowledge and morals can prevent people from moving back to nature.Nonetheless, it is hard to have a shared global culture. Everysociety has its values and ideals that define their goals andprocesses (Laozi & McDonald, 2010).
Moreover,our discussion explores Wu, the spirits used by the Chinese societiesfor divination and prayer. Since the ancient times, Wu has gainedpolitical significance, whereby, some people use it to achieve theirpolitical goals. China has ritual bureaucrats who never engage inshaman practices. Some rulers in the ancient China were known toobserve ritual practices at times of calamities. Shamanism took acentral position in the ancient Chinese politics. It was believedthat human wisdom rested in Heaven. As such, people considered thatintelligence was necessary for political authority. Shamans were alsoevident in the state courts. Based on such information, we recognizethat the ‘devil in Chinese politics’ started a long time ago. Ithas sought power to control the social institutions, including,courts and political leadership.
WhenEmperor Wu of Han created Confucianism as the state religion, forexample, the political elite discriminated against shamanism. Inother cases, the ruling class was hostile to women in government.Much as communism does not tolerate discrimination, the practice wasevident in the Chinese empires. The matter reflects the magicaldivisions between men and women. It is notable that womenrepresentation in socio-political affairs was poor. Socialistpolitical systems received attention from some countries, especially,developing nations. These nations were able to incorporate them intotheir socio-political structures. The typical socialist perceptionwas that some rich countries were taking advantage of developingcountries through their capitalistic approach (Strassberg, 2002).
Inthe modern world, China is a threat or what can be referred to as‘devil in details’. The form of literary portrayal is meant torefer to China as a country that is complicated to understandpolitically. Over the years, the state has adopted communist valuesalthough there are elements of capitalism in the governance system(Ding, 2008). We need to recognize that China has, for a long time,disagreed with the westerners’ system of capitalism. China has arivalry with countries such as the US although it does not play outin the open. Perhaps one great observation is that China is trying toplace itself as an economic powerhouse in the world. The politicssurrounding the notion seeks to put China ahead of other nations inthe foreseeable future. Even the political leadership is trying toplace the country as a consumer economy. In essence, the state wantsits voice heard in shaping the global affairs.
Sincethe ancient, Chinese seek to preserve their empires and possessions.The arrangement gets difficult to understand and implement in thecurrent setting owing to globalization (Ding, 2008). Chinese do notengage in combative political affairs rather they seek to engage indiplomacy. However, their inclination baffles many people as they donot engage in issues that are not helpful to them directly. Oneobserves that the political culture has developed over time withexcellent reference to their traditions. Domestic rivalries are notreported to the public, with the government engaging in mediacensorship.
Manysocieties around the world, including China that serves as the homeof Laozi, are embracing the western ideals in their daily affairs.Nonetheless, majority remain cautious to preserve the local culturesand standards. Western modernization has resulted in diverse effects,some of which are irreversible. The separation between subject andobject is a serious problem where the defects are embodied intovaried socio-economic and ecological tribulations. In China, changingthe cultural characteristics and techniques of the people is hard.Experts, borrowing from Taoism, augment the need to utilize theChinese traditional culture in generating own solutions anddevelopment models. The approach would help the Chinese society avoidthe challenges faced by the westerners as well as create a newfrontier in political leadership. It is expected that otherdeveloping nations will use similar approaches in theirsocio-political agenda. Through Laozi, we learn the importance ofembedding traditional cultures in the modernization process. Such anapproach will free the developing nations from embracing the westernideals blindly hence avoid setbacks in the process of modernization.
Inthe contemporary world, political ideologies have sought to championfor the entrenchment of standard values in the governance structuresof nations. The Chinese political system and socio-cultural valuesmake it difficult to realize the said objectives. Even in areas wherethey participate, Chinese are known to have a lukewarm approach(Ding, 2008). The country lacks interest in global policies that donot consider their interests. The devil in Chinese politics is thesocio-cultural values adopted since the ancient times. Nevertheless,the country is slowly adopting new values and practices in thepolitical systems. The social institutions such as courts have alsoundergone transformation to mirror the current global environment.
Fromthe discussion of the various concepts, ranging ancient Chineseculture to contemporary society, we identify that the country adoptsvalues and practices that suit their needs. Political leadership hasgreat regard for the changes taking place around the world althoughthey are not quick to move with the tide. At times, one observes thatthe practices and Chinese culture have been the country’s strengthand undoing. Just like the literal meaning of the devil, Chinaengages on issues that are beneficial to the citizens. We alsoobserve that the country has been trying to become a globalsuperpower ahead of the US (Ding, 2008).
Intrying to understand the literal meaning of the ‘devil in Chinesepolitics’, we observe that the country has been adamant to adoptnorms from the western world. Much as the country engages incommunism, China has been slowly taking other ideals to conform tothe changing global dynamics. The nation has adopted principles thatare difficult to understand since the ancient times. We are oftenplundering as a society for taking up values that do not conform toour culture, expectations, and needs. The contemporary culture issubstantially focused on competition and success, a phenomenon thatworsens our social environment and values. Bottom line, it isappropriate for the country to observe due diligence in theirsocio-political affairs.
Ding,S. (2008). The dragon`s hidden wings: How China rises with itssoft power. Lanham: Lexington Books.
Fu,Z. (1993). Autocratic tradition and Chinese politics.Cambridge u.a: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Laozi,H., & McDonald, J. H. (2010). Tao te Ching. London:Arcturus.
Strassberg,R. E. (2002). A Chinese bestiary: Strange creatures from the"Guideways through mountains and seas. Berkeley: Universityof California press.
Tismaneanu,V. (2012). The devil in history: Communism, fascism, and somelessons of the twentieth century. Berkeley: University ofCalifornia Press.