Normalizationand its Importance
Normalizationrefers to the process through which columns that are known asattributes and tables of relations database are organized to minimizeredundancy (Connolly& Begg, 2005).Several reasons exist for carrying out normalization. One of thereasons is to eliminate redundant data, like carrying out the storageof same data in more than one table and then making sure that thereis a sense out of the data(Bahmani, Naghibzadeh & Bahmani, 2008).Through the processes, there is a reduction in space that is consumedby the database and thus ensures that data is stored logically.Therefore, normalization is a refinement process that happens afterthe first process of data identification and identification of theobjects within the database (Connolly& Begg, 2005).
Inmodule 2, the tables in the relational database are normalized. Thereis defined primary key, which is denoted in each case. The primarykey links all the tables. Duplication of data has been reduced.
First,the tables satisfy the condition of 1NF given that every cell in thetable has only one piece of information. Additionally, there are noduplicate rows. The tables also satisfy the condition of 2NF and 3NFas the conditions demand of being dependent on the primary key.Additionally, the tables are in 2NF as the primary key is not induplicate form. The primary key is not duplicated at all.Essentially, there is no redundancy at all. Given that the tablessatisfy the condition of INF, 2NF, it, therefore, satisfies thecondition of 3NF.
Inmodule 2, the tables have been normalized, and they meet thenormalization standards. The tables in the relational database havebeen decomposed into a less redundant form or smaller tables withoutloss of information. All of the tables are linked back by definingforeign keys in the old table. The foreign key is the EmpNo in theold table of the sales order. The primary key has been referenced ineach table. Ideally, the tables have been properly linked such thatany additions, deletions or modifications did of an attribute can becarried out in just one table and then propagated through the rest ofthe database through defined foreign keys (Emp No) (Bahmani, Naghibzadeh & Bahmani, 2008).
ACIDand Importance in Database
ACIDalludes to the significant concept for databases, which stands forAtomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability(Moniruzzaman & Hossain, 2013).Through this concept, data can be shared safely. The property ofatomicity is significance as it helps transaction be all or nothing.If one section of the transaction fails, then the whole of thetransaction is in jeopardy, and no changes occur to the database(Moniruzzaman& Hossain, 2013).On the other hand, through the consistency property, the databasetransaction is brought from one valid state to another. This propertyensures that any data that is written has to be valid in accordancewith the rules that are written including the constraints and anyother combination. The isolation property ensures that there is someexecution of a transaction in a serial manner upon concurrentexecution of the transaction results. The durability property is inplace to ensure that upon transaction execution, it remains so. Thismeans that the results are stored permanently, and there is nointerference with it (Moniruzzaman& Hossain, 2013).
WhyNormalization is Needed
Normalizationin its primary form is important as it helps reduce the chances ofdata redundancy occurrence(Connolly & Begg, 2005).Another critical reason for normalization is to ensure that thecollections of relations are free from any form of undesirableaction. This action could include insertion, update, and deletion.Through normalization, there is a reduction of the restructuring ofthe collection of relations, as the new types of data are introducedhence increasing the duration of use of various application programs.Normalization also ensures that relational models are moreinformative to the users.
Bahmani,A. H., Naghibzadeh, M., & Bahmani, B. (2008, May). Automaticdatabase normalization and primary key generation. In Electricaland Computer Engineering, 2008. CCECE 2008. Canadian Conferenceon (pp.000011-000016). IEEE.
Connolly,T. M., & Begg, C. E. (2005). Databasesystems: a practical approach to design, Implementation, andmanagement.Pearson Education.
Moniruzzaman,A. B. M., & Hossain, S. A. (2013). Nosql database: New era ofdatabases for big data analytics-classification, characteristics andcomparison. arXivpreprint arXiv:1307.0191.