Causes of Job Dissatisfaction among Employees Number

Causesof Job Dissatisfaction among Employees


Causesof Job Dissatisfaction among Employees

Thechange in organization management that has been experienced today hasin one way led to focus on improvement of employee management. Thishas in turn, led to increased employee productivity not to mentionimproving their job satisfaction rate. Employee satisfaction has beenan issue of focus, as there has been increasing cases and causes ofworker dissatisfaction which in turn affects their productivity in anegative way. The notion of the work-life balance has been emphasizedby many scholars throughout history. The demanding job descriptionsdefine the work culture in the competitive world. The environment, inwhich one works in, needs to be of positive impact on the life of anindividual as a whole. This positive impact entails employee’sphysical and intellectual well-being within the job he/she isassigned. These measures are important in curbing job dissatisfaction(Walton, 1985). Subsequently, this paper seeks to comprehensivelyanalyze the causes and managerial recommendations which can beimplemented to avoid job dissatisfaction.


Jobsatisfaction is the pleasurable perception that an employeeexperiences from his/her job experiences. In essence, this is thepositive feeling or attitude one has with respect to one’srespective job. In contrast, job dissatisfaction is the negativeattitude towards a job. Job satisfaction is one way or another linkedto the organizational structures, personality types, age and thesocio-cultural environment. Various theories conflicts with respectto the method with which to measure job satisfaction. This is due toits qualitative rather than quantitative nature. However, the mainindicators used in this measurement include the employee pay, workingconditions and career prospects. Job dissatisfaction is an emergingglobal issue in the corporate world because it negatively impactsorganizational turnover. Human resource management (HRM), which dealsdirectly with employees, needs to formulate strategies which motivateemployees to avoid dissatisfaction (Bevon, 2015). According to astudy done in 2011 by Gallup Well-Being Index, it revealed that sincethe year 2008, there has been an increase in employee jobdissatisfaction. The results showed an aspect of detachment betweenemployees and their job as well as the organization. Differentreasons were attributed to varying causes such as unsupportivemanagers/leaders, being overworked or underpaid, lack of balancebetween work and the employees’ life (Hedges, 2014).

Causesof Job Dissatisfaction

Themost common cause of job dissatisfaction is the underpayment ofemployees. This is a perception developed by workers who feel thattheir pay does not match their job description. Underpayment isintrinsic to an individual and therefore it is a perception developedindependently. In the event that an individual has researched, wellon the level of salary allocations, then underpayment is largely arelative phenomenon. Financial gains are one of the factors behindpeople seeking employment, and when the financial gain comes short ofthe workers expectation, the result is a de-motivated employee. Highrates of inflation experienced in the global economy, lower themonetary value of employee’s salaries which results in anunderpayment. The private sector has made great strides in improvingthe salary allocations of its employees. On the other hand, thepublic sector has extreme salary allocations and thereforesubordinate staff is underpaid while the managerial staff receiveslucrative salaries. Subsequently, it is important to streamline theallocation of salaries to avoid job dissatisfaction which ultimatelyyields negatively to an organization. (Bowling, Hendricks, &ampWagner, 2008)

Lackof career growth and advancement in the workplace causes jobdissatisfaction. When the job environment lacks chances for employeesto develop their careers, boredom, nor learning scope, lack ofchances to implement the skills, downturn with organizations allcontributes to the stagnated career development which is a catalystfor employee dissatisfaction. Employees are constantly looking foropportunities to grow in their careers. This explains the many shiftsmade by employees in the quest for better jobs and greatergratification in their input towards an organization. Workers arealso continually shifted to different positions within theirorganizations and also in internal recruitments for higher positions.Individuals also take professional and leadership courses, and iftheir efforts go unrewarded then job dissatisfaction sets in.Organizational structures which do not accommodate innovative ideasfrom their employees also stagnates career development for creativeemployees. Some organizations also lack policies to safeguard the jobsecurity of their employees and this causes dissatisfaction bycreating the negative anticipation of termination (Hedges, 2014).

Organizationperformance, as well as that of their employees, is greatlydetermined by the effectiveness of the management team. Thesuccessful management team is a positive motivation tool towardssatisfying workers. On the other hand, ineffective management teamsare pathways to low employee morale, low productivity rate, all ofwhich contributes to workers increased dissatisfaction. Themanagerial team contributes greatly to the level of satisfactionamong its pool of employees. The management is tasked with theresponsibility of motivating employees, away from its primary roleson planning, controlling and organizing. Poor management works todemoralize employee satisfaction and impact negatively on theirperformance. Managers who lack leadership skills contribute to jobdissatisfaction by their inability to steer the organization in theright direction. This incompetence affects employees’ loyalty andconfidence in the management team, leading to dissatisfaction andunder performance. Additionally, micromanagement of employees causesdissatisfaction by nurturing apathy among employees. This strategymay be implemented to ensure the goals and objectives of theorganization are met, but if this style infringes on employeemotivation, then it is bound to cause dissatisfaction (Hedges, 2014).

Oneof the major catalysts towards successful organization performance iseffective communication between all people involved. Effectivecommunication is known to contribute to a positive workingenvironment with less confusion, less uncertainty, and insteadpromote employee morale. Lack of effective communication in theworkplace causes job dissatisfaction. Communication is one of themajor tools necessary for the success of any organization. Effectivecommunication is founded on integrity and trust. Communicationbarriers between the management and the employees, cultivates doubt,uncertainty, and frustration. When the management makes decisionsunilaterally without consulting the employees, the chain of commandis interrupted. Dissatisfaction also results from a lack of goodrelationships with co-workers. Employees spend long hours in theoffice and therefore the importance of healthy social relationshipsin the workplace cannot be over emphasized. Therefore, nurturing goodvertical and horizontal communication is vital in maintainingemployee motivation (Rusbult &amp Farrell, 1992).

HRMStrategies on Employee Satisfaction

HRMdeals directly with the organization of human resources within anorganization. The management team as a whole is tasked with planning,organizing and motivation of employees. Modern HRM recognizes thegreat role played by employees in the growth and development ofdifferent organizations. Motivation strategies have been adopted tohelp in reducing job dissatisfaction if not its elimination.“Employeesare a company`s greatest asset – they`re your competitive advantage.You want to attract and retain the best provide them withencouragement, stimulus, and make them feel that they are an integralpart of the company`s mission”(Hedges, 2014). To begin with HR managers should provide friendlywork environments for their employees. This is in line with thehealth and safety measures as required by law as well as the physicalspace within which they operate. Depending on the nature of theorganization, employees should have a friendly working space whichtriggers their creativity (Foot &amp Hook, 2011). The revolutionthat has brought along by the adoption of HRM with regard toorganization management has brought a greater emphasis towards themanagement of the workers

Secondly,the HRM should align compensation of their employees to match globalstandards. This is in terms of salaries and wages as well as otherbenefits such as health insurance covers, housing allowances, andretirement pension plans. Job appraisals conducted warrant bonuses toexemplary employee performances. Thirdly, the HRM should minimize jobdissatisfaction by ensuring they create avenues for prospectivecareer advancement. This can be done by internally promoting juniorstaff to open managerial positions. Using the democratic managementstyle will also enhance the input of employees in the organization asthey will have a good platform to air their innovative ideas andcontribute to decision making. Sponsoring professional courses foremployees and their participation in global seminars and conferenceswill also minimize job dissatisfaction (Foot &amp Hook, 2011).

Finally,the implementation of HR measures through the development of aneffective staffing plan. This would help towards hiring the employeeswith the right skills and for the right job. It has been identifiedthat one of the causes behind dissatisfaction among employees is alack of direct relationship between their academic qualifications andthe job description. More so, the HRM has been on the forefronttowards the devising of motivation strategies other than money whichcontributes to employees’ participation towards organizationactivities. According to Rusbult &amp Farrell (1992), money is notthe only tool that can define job satisfaction, but instead employeesneed more that good paycheck to remain motivated towards their job.The HR has been effective in ensuring organization culture alignswith employees’ demands, making the work interesting, devisingother forms of rewards as well as ensuring low levels of stress amongthe workers.


Theadoption of the HRM practices in the modern organizational managementhas led to greater emphasis on the need to deploy effective employeemanagement. This is the realization that, employee performancedirectly impacts the organization performance. More so, employeesatisfaction is a catalyst for improved performance. From theinformation provided, it is clear that different factors contributeto employee dissatisfaction. These entail causes such as lack ofeffective communication, poor management teams, underpayment amongothers. Job dissatisfaction is constantly experienced by employeesthroughout the world. It is upon individuals to invest in themselvesso as to ensure they deal well with the inevitable dynamics in theworkplace which cause job dissatisfaction. Additionally, employersneed to adopt work ethics and management strategies which favor theoverall advancement and growth of an individual in all facets. Theestablishment of HR departments in the organization has brought alongrevolution with regard to employee management.


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Bowling, N., Hendricks, E., &amp Wagner, S. (2008). Positive and Negative Affectivity and Facet Satisfaction. Journal of Business and Psychology , 23.

Foot, M., &amp Hook, C. (2011). Introducing Human Resource Management (6th Edition Ed.). Financial Time / Prentice Hall.

Hedges, K. (2014, January 20). 8 Common Causes of Workplace Demotivation. Forbes Magazine.

Rusbult, C., &amp Farrell, D. (1992). Exploring the Exit, Voice, Loyalty and Neglect Typology: The Influence of ob Satisfaction, Quality of Alternatives and Investment Size. Employees Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 5 (3).

Walton, R. E. (1985, March). From Control to Commitment in the Workplace. Harvard Business Review.