Case Study


Running head: CASE STUDY


Takinga client through a counseling session involves the activeparticipation of both the counselor and the patient. The counselor inthe first instance should create a conducive atmosphere to engage apatient freely to achieve positive outcomes. Helping a patient healfrom an issue and preventing future recurrence of the issue is thesole purpose of indulging in counseling. A counselor plays a criticalrole in the therapy process because having identified a problem thatthe client experiences, the counselor ethically urges the patient tounderstand and realize his problem to make it easy to impress workingmethods of counseling on the patient to achieve healing and recovery(Gassmann &amp Grawe, 2006).

Inthis case study, Roger, who is an adult of 40 years, has approachedmy desk for assistance. It is imperative that I engage Roger intodivulging certain information that will be instrumental to theattainment of the therapy success. Roger, as represented in thescenario, seems to live in isolation and interacts with few people inhis sphere. It is important to understand the childhood life ofRoger finding out if he suffered abuse (emotional, physical orpsychological), was emotionally isolated, had absentee parents whowould not cater for his needs, was ever bullied and determine hisfeeding habits from the time he was a child. Information as towhether Roger was an only child would also prove to be important.Thisinformation will be vital in determining the course in which thesession will take. It is critical for a counselor to understandissues from their base so as to discern the exact cause of a problem.For instance, the information on whether he was abused as a childwould help explain the reason for his isolation tendencies and notbeing socially interactive. Determining the mental health of theclient is imperative to achieving lasting results. Counselors areencouraged to use motivational methods, which encourages the clientto embrace change and give the client a feeling that the counseloridentifies with his pain (Bohart &amp Tallman, 1999).

Acounselor would exhibit some biases that could be prejudicial to thetherapy process. The religious beliefs, cultural standings and thevalues of a counselor influences the kind of technique he employs inthe counseling session. The religious values affect a counselor’sdefinition of mental health. To relieve themselves of the danger ofremaining biased, they have to exercise balance, honesty, andfairness towards the client.

Itis worth mentioning that a therapy process could experiencedifficulty instigated by either the client or the counselor. It isalready explained how a counselor’s position would impact on thecounseling session however, in a client’s situation, his refusalto reveal some information necessary for the progress of the therapyprocess would likely get the process to a premature halt. Roger’sfeeling that he is unable to woo women into marrying him would be animpediment because as part of the recovery process, it will berequired that he presents himself more to public places. The resolveby Roger to commit suicide is an indication that Roger might justhave given up in life, and it will be challenging to invite him to awhole new idea of loving himself and appreciating life. He alsosuffers from obesity, which is a major influence on his personalview, making him think himself as unworthy. Also, even though hewants to marry, he still expresses confusion over his sexualorientation. His size as determined has had an effect on his esteem.

Asa counselor, I wish to help Roger restore his self esteem and anappreciation of self image. I also want to commit Roger to afunctional exercise program to facilitate the manner in which heperceives himself. His weight as documented in the scenario hasresulted in him developing other lifestyle diseases, which wouldcause him, even more, complications and death given his age. It isessential to develop an exercise plan and also create a meal plan forRoger to help him maintain a nutritious diet. The refusal to adoptthese changes will for sure stall the therapy process, especially thedenial to follow an appropriate diet will worsen his obesity levelsand he will more regard himself as undeserving of anything good(Bohart &amp Tallman, 1999). The involvement of exercise in thissession is a significant part of the solution, leading to the removalof all the negative feelings harbored in the mind of Roger. Thebenefits that accrue from training are far precious for the healingprocess. Roger needs to work himself out vigorously because as isevident, all his predicaments are pegged upon the fact that he isoverweight, barring him from taking certain risks in life that wouldhelp him reach a point of realization and self-appreciation.

Applyingthe Adlerian method in this session will assist in the achievement ofsuccess on the part of the counselor, and healing to the client. Thisapproach involves four phases, which are: Forming a relationship,Psychological investigation (Assessment), Psychological disclosure/Interpretation (Insight), and Re-orientation and Re-education. Takinga client through these phases results in the achievement of the goalsthat had earlier been set (&quotAdlerian therapy: theory andpractice&quot, 2006).

Dueto the nature of the process, it will be necessary to involve otherconcerned parties in the attainment of success. It will be criticalto engage a nutritionist and a physical fitness therapist to helpwith the exercise program.

Thenumber of sessions that will suffice to cover the entire processdepends on an agreement between the client and the counselor. Somesessions would take long however, others would take a shorter time.

Ameasurement approach to the success of a therapy process, determinesfactually if any progress is exhibited. An evidence-based approachwill ensure the collection of evidence, which will, in turn, informthe decision made by the counselor concerning the progress made inthe therapy process (Gassmann &amp Grawe, 2006).

Conclusively,the discussion that is developed in the case study reveals theaspects of treatment that could be applied in a counseling session,to achieve a positive result. The success of a therapy processdepends on both the contribution of the counselor and client, andparticularly the alacrity of the client to adopt the changes thatwill ensure healing (Bohart &amp Tallman, 1999).


Adleriantherapy: theory and practice. (2006). ChoiceReviews Online,43(09),43-5570-43-5570.

Bohart,A. C., &amp Tallman, K. (1999). Howclients make therapy work: The process of active self-healing.American Psychological Association.

Gassmann,D., &amp Grawe, K. (2006). General change mechanisms: The relationbetween problem activation and resource activation in successful andunsuccessful therapeutic interactions. ClinicalPsychology &amp Psychotherapy,13(1),1-11.




Thesmartphone is one of the most important inventions in the recentpast. Products by major manufacturers, mainly Samsung Electronics Co.and Apple Inc. took the industry by storm recording millions of salesevery year. However, as the market matures, numerous challenges haveemerged, with some analysts arguing that it has gone flat. Accordingto a report released by IDC, 334.9 million handsets were soldworldwide between January and March 2016. The figure represented a0.2 percent increase in sales compared to the first quarter of 2015,and the smallest annual growth ever recorded. Another report byStrategy Analytics indicated that the sales declined by three percentcompared to last year, in the same period. Based on the fact that allthe major producers, Samsung, Apple, and LG have recorded a decreasein revenues, there is evidence of a decline in the smartphone bonanza(Cheng &amp Lee, 2016).

However,the big question has been whether there is a market for moreinnovation in the smartphone business or the producers have providedall that the clients may require. It is important to note that themarket is saturated with the majority of the potential customers,especially in the developed world owning them. Additionally, themarketplace is flooded with similar high-quality product, whichprovides clients with a wider choice at a lower price. Based on thereaction to the Galaxy S7 recently launched by Samsung, there is ademand for innovative flagship products. Other manufacturers recordeda decline in earning but Galaxy S7 boosted the performance of Samsungin the first quarter of 2016. The aggressive promotions by thecarrier partners as well as differentiated characteristics such asthe curved screen offered something new to the enthusiasticcustomers. Consequently, the product was sold out immediately afterarrival (Cheng &amp Lee, 2016). Therefore, despite the floodedsmartphone business, superior products have the ability to causeexcitement. There are phenomenon products in the marketplace. Despitethis, the technology world will always welcome new and more excitingtechnologies.

Productssuch as smartphones have distinctive stages of the lifecycle. Thecycle begins with an introduction of the product, followed by a rapidgrowth, then maturity and a decline stage. A peak in sales volumecharacterizes the maturity stage. The market is saturated with theproduct, and there are a relatively small number of new customers. Adecrease in market share and a decline in profits are othersignificant indicators of product maturity. The number ofmanufacturers and producers increase resulting in a drop in marketshare due to competition. Since the sales and profits are sharedamong competing producers, the revenues will begin to fall. At thisstage, the producers are likely to record minimum growth revenueswhile others record a gradual decline (Anandan, 2015).

Althoughit is subject to debate, indicators suggest that the smartphonesmarket has reached the maturity stage. In the last few years, majormanufacturers such as Samsung Electronics Co., LG Electronics Inc.,and Apple have recorded fast growth in sales and mobile profits. However, this has been changing as they move away from the rapidgrowth stage of the lifecycle. While LG Electronics has beenreporting losses in the last three-quarters, Apple Inc has reportedits first drop in revenue in 13 years. Although the latest flagshipmodel by Samsung had an impact on its revenues, other manufacturerssuch as LG have been faced with different realities. New products byLG did not have a similar reception. Studies indicate that thesmartphone business is shrinking, suggesting that the sales havereached the peak. Additionally, the entry of new producers fromemerging economies such as India has increased competition, which haspressurized earnings. The industry is slowly becoming saturated,especially in the developed countries, and some components makershave rated the market as “a low growth industry” (Cheng &ampLee, 2016). Some observers have noted that the smartphones arecommoditized meaning that a notable percentage of target populationalready owns a smartphone. The situation is made worse by asignificant number of manufacturers producing less differentiatedproducts. The similar nature of the products such as screen size,applications availability and compatibility, camera quality andoperating system technology have significant impacts on the giantmanufacturers such as Apple Inc and Samsung. These changes indynamics allow competitors to offer their products at relativelylower prices (Cheng &amp Lee, 2016).

Thescope of the smartphone industry is becoming smaller and morecompetitive. However, innovation and diversification of commoditiesare likely to increase revenues and maintain strong brand names amongthe large producers. The recent trend of increasing size andresolution of the screen has sustained the demand for new and moreadvanced phones. The role of innovation and more exciting product inthe market is evident from the impacts of the Samsung Galaxy 7 in themarket. While other major companies are struggling, the new designsintroduced by Samsung have ensured that its products remain thepreferred brand in the high-end consumers (Cheng &amp Lee, 2016).Nonetheless, the curved screen in the dynamic technology world is nowin the past. Manufacturers need to invest in more excitingtechnologies such as augmented realities. They will create the nextgeneration of smartphones where an individual can live his life onthe device.

Asthe demand for more sophisticated and advanced devices increase, lackof differentiation has been a huge challenge. The success of theGalaxy 7 in an industry where other brands are struggling is due toproduct differentiation. As a result of homogenous products in thesmartphone market and the entry of cheaper and high-quality productsfrom emerging economies such as India and Latin America, a simplefeature that differentiate a product with the competition can havefar-reaching impacts (Cheng &amp Lee, 2016). For example, thedevelopment of batteries has not been able to keep up with the paceof devices development. Consequently, all gargets in the marketrequire the user to have regular access to power. A differentiatedproduct that saves the user the need for wall socket can excite theusers. Although the excitement does not last long due to the responsefrom competitors, constant innovation is a viable solution to thedeclining revenues.

Continuousinnovation and differentiation of the products to rejuvenate thesmartphone market should be accompanied by venturing into new productareas. The major producers need to cushion their revenues from thedeclining smartphone sales. Major played such as Samsung and LG havea broader range of products that contributes to their income.However, these businesses are also faced with numerous challengesthat have added to the declining revenues. For example, thesemiconductor business by Samsung has recorded slump in profits,contributing to the reduced revenues in the company in the last twoyears (Cheng &amp Lee, 2016).


Anandan,C. (2015). Productmanagement.New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education.

Cheng,J. &amp Lee, M. (2016). InSmartphone Market, the Squeeze is On: Earnings reports this week maytoll the bell for a decade long bonanza. WallStreet Journal, TECH, April 28, 2016.