Assignment Question 1



BITNET,originally, was a corporate networks for the Universities of Yale andthe New York the University. Its development is attributed to IraFuchs in the year 1981 (McNeal, 2010). However, other institutions,which wished to join afterward, were supposed to rent the datacircuit from a site that already had an established BITNET node. Theinstitutions were, further, required to acquire modems from both endsof the data circuit, take one to the connection center, and make itpossible for other institutions to connect freely.

BITNETSNetwork Job Entry was characterized by Remote Spooling CommunicationSubsystem that came in handy, in the International Business MachinesCorporations internal network. Initially, its links operated at 9600baud later, the protocols were shifted to non-IBM operating systems,which were executed under general purpose computing services, justlike DECnet.

Itsupported emails and had electronic mailing software that predatedthe World Wide Web. Its features gave a platform for the exchange offiles and messages in an interactive way between the users. ItsGateway services enabled the consumers to get files from theinternet. The Interchat Relay Network element enabled the users toget instant messages.

Themain limitation, which came with its use, was its inability to meetthe demands of the commercial firms to some extent even the IBMitself. This dimension made it difficult to offer technical aid andlistening device fixing. This problem made it complicated even tocommunicate on the heterogeneous networks that had graphicalstations.


RaymondSamuel Tomlinson

Apioneer in the field of Computer programming, he is known for theimplementation of the first email in the year 1971 (McNeal, 2010).Born in 1941 in Amsterdam, he joined a technology company in 1967where he played a key role in the development of the TENEX operatingsystems, execution of the Telnet and the execution of the Creeper andReaper. In the company, he was tasked to manipulate the SNDMSGprogram so that it could transmit messages to other users. That washow he came up with the first mail which transformed the Internetsector.

SirTimothy John Berners- Lee

Commonlyreferred to as TimBL, was born on 8thJune 1955 in London England. As a computer scientist, he is behindthe innovation of the World Wide Web (McNeal, 2010). In the year1989, he presented a proposal on information management system andsubsequently implemented a communication involving Hypertext Transferprotocol customer and the server in the same year. Currently, heheads the World Wide Web Consortium that goes on with the progressivedevelopments of the Web. In addition, he founded the World WebFoundation which plays a vital role in carrying out research onadvancing the Internet.


LeonardKleinrock is an American computer scientist born 13 June 1934. As aprofessor in the field of Computer Science, he has played significantroles in relation to computer networking more specifically in theaspect of theoretical foundations (McNeal, 2010). His thesistouching on the queuing theory which is applicable in many fields hada mathematical foundation on packet switching with is a basic of theinternet. His theoretical findings together with his student FaroukKamoun in 1970, on hierarchical routing, are still applicable in theworld of internet today.

Healso played a significant role in the development of ARPANET theforerunner of Internet.


Anelectrical engineer, he is credited with the Ethernet invention in1973 (McNeal, 2010). Originally, the idea was meant to join computersover short distances. However, with time, the feature has advanced toconnect the internet to computers over vast regions.


Bornin February 1932, he is also another pioneer in the computerindustry. He led several teams towards remarkable contributions inthe world of personalized computers and other affiliatedtechnologies. His visionary leadership under the vision thatportrayed internets main objective as connecting people rather thantechnological advancement saw him lead successful bodies within thecommunication world. Between 1965 and 1969 he headed the departmentof Information Processing Techniques, he founded the Computer sciencelaboratory in the 1970 and went on to establish a Digital Equipmentcorporation all which played significant roles in the field ofInternet (McNeal, 2010).

BobKahn and Vint Cerf

BobKahn an electrical engineer together with Vint Cerf a pioneer in theinternet field were the co-innovators of the Transmission ControlProtocol and the Internet Protocol which form the basis of theinternet we are using today (McNeal, 2010).

BobKahn came up with original ideas for what in future became to be theTransmission Control Protocol. The main aim was to substitute the NCPwhich was being used in the ARPANET. Working on the idea, he aimedat allowing computers and networks globally to communicate instantlynot considering the type of the hardware or the software the specificcomputers were using.

Toachieve this, the TCP was structured to have certain features. Forinstance, small sub-units of the larger part could communicate toeach other through a special type of a computer that could onlyforward packets. No part of the network could singularly fail orcontrol the whole part. In addition, each message sent was given anumber and also notified the sender upon delivery.

VintCerf came into the project in 1973 (McNeal, 2010). After completingthe original version, they subsequently went on to separate it intotwo levels that saw the shifting of the most basic functions to theInternet Protocol. The two levels commonly known as the TCP/IP arethe foundation of the current internet.

Theywent ahead to establish the internet society in the year 1992 thathas played a key role in the provision of education, standardization,and policy making in the internet related fields.

MarkP. Mc Cahill

Bornin 1956, he is a computer programmer with a remarkable involvement indevelopment and popularization of technological changes in theinternet field from 1980 (McNeal, 2010). He is behind the developmentof the initial email customers that employed the use of graphicalusers in the marketing of the internet. He also led a team that cameup with simple navigation ways on finding information using theinternet in 1991.Furthermore, together with other pioneers they cameup with the Uniform Resource Locators and even codified itsstandards.


JonPostel is widely known for his major contributions in the internetworld specifically in the standardization aspect to the extent ofbeing referred to as the &quotgod&quot of the internet (McNeal,2010). He was behind the Request for comment documentary and alsosuccessfully administered the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.These associations led to his wide-ranging influence in the field ofinternet.

JosephCarl Licklider

Bornin 1915, Licklider contributions in the computer field cannot beunderestimated. He is specifically remembered as the first individualto predict the contemporary interactive style of computing and itsapplication in several activities. He had a vision of a globalcomputer network and did a lot towards the achievement of thisvision. He funded researchers and even nurtured individuals who lefta mark in the internet field.

Basingon the above description, I would credit Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee for the current internet entity. Other innovations that have comein have always been based on the World Wide Web system that wasestablished by him. It is the backbone of the modern internet.


Thequote brings out clearly the elements of the internet vision at thetime. For instance, it brings out clearly that the internet knowledgewill be in all places. It will be accessed by everybody and it willever be on. The quote also points out the invisible trait of theinternet.


McNeal,G. (2010).&quotEarlyExperiences with ARPANET and the contemporary Internet”The ABNF Journal 21(2): 23-105.