Article Critique





The purpose ofthe study is to analyze the balance and distribution of energyassociated with cases of low-grade inflammation (Bawadi, Katkhiuda,Al-Haifi, Tayyem, Elkhoury, &amp Jamal, 2016). The study focuses onpatients with type 2 diabetes. Previous studies had proved that minorinflammations contributed to the pathogenesis of diabetes throughbeta cell apoptosis (Bawadi et al., 2016). The research questionseeks to answer whether macronutrient distribution and energy balancehave a significant impact on the levels of C-reactive protein amongpatients with diabetes (Bawadi et al., 2016). In this regard, thenull hypothesis supposes that energy balance has no effect on theinflammatory processes prevalent in type 2 diabetes.

The methodologyfeatured a cross-sectional study involving 198 patients diagnosedwith type 2 diabetes (Bawadi et al., 2016). Initially, 1,500 patientshad been earmarked for the research. However, the application ofparticular exclusion criteria trimmed the number by 87%. Femalescomprised 63.1% of the pool of patients (Bawadi et al., 2016). Thestudy measured various parameters such as macronutrient and energyintake, truncal fat percent, total body fat, waist circumference,height, and weight (Bawadi et al., 2016). All measurements were takenaccording to the guidelines established by the World HealthOrganization (WHO). Furthermore, specimens of venous blood wereobtained from the patients. Consequently, the data was analyzed todetermine the serum amounts of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein(hs-CRP) (Bawadi et al., 2016). Also, further analysis was used toreveal the levels of HbAIc.

The resultsindicate that energy balance had positive correlations with HbAIc andhs-CRP. Besides, energy balance was directly proportional to truncalfat percent and body waist circumference (Bawadi et al., 2016).Moreover, the study discovered that percent energy from proteins andfat had correlations with higher levels of hs-CRP. Nonetheless,percent energy from carbohydrates lacked the same property.Therefore, the study showed that increased intake of energy, fat, andproteins led to elevated levels of hs-CRP (Bawadi et al., 2016).


1. Problem

The problem hasbeen clearly stated before the experimental section. It is alsopractically relevant since it concerns patients with type 2 diabetes.The aim of the research is to probe the impact of energy balance onthe levels of hs-CRP (Bawadi et al., 2016). In this respect, the nullhypothesis assumes that energy balance has no impact on the amountsof C-reactive proteins. Notably, keywords are identified but notdefined. Besides, the study is limited in that predictive equationswere used to calculate energy expenditure (Bawadi et al., 2016).Moreover, the study failed to examine the direct relationship betweenmacronutrient distribution and energy intake (Bawadi et al., 2016).The article was educational in that it sought to define newrelationships between inflammation and energy consumption.

Review ofLiterature

The cited sourcesare relevant to the study since they provide background informationon obesity-related illnesses such as diabetes. Nevertheless, thereview is too narrow since it excludes the interrelationship betweenmacronutrient distribution and energy intake along with inflammation.The article uses relatively recent sources published in the period2000-2015. The central concept of the article concerns macronutrientdistribution and energy intake. Supporting ideas include HbAIc andC-reactive protein levels.

Design &ampProcedures

The methodologyused in the research focused on a cross-sectional study of 198patients (Bawadi et al., 2016). All the participants fulfilled thestringent measures stipulated in the exclusion criteria. Althoughprevious studies had investigated the relationship betweeninflammation and diabetes, the current research was original in thatit focused on a unique area. The study used measurement tools derivedfrom the World Health Organization. Besides, a measuring rod was usedto measure the patients’ height (Bawadi et al., 2016). The researchprocedures were structured in that obtained measurements were used tocalculate other values. For example, blood specimens were used todetermine the quantities of HbAIc and C-reactive proteins.

Granted, a pilotstudy was not conducted due to the targeted nature of the research.The variables used in the survey include gender, diabetes duration,years of formal education, and years treated with insulin. Othervariables measure the mean percentages of body fat, truncal fat, andenergy from fat and proteins (Bawadi et al., 2016). Sampling wasperformed using particular criteria to sift the original number of1,500 patients with type 2 diabetes. Some of the excluded patientshad recent surgeries while others had been diagnosed for less than ayear (Bawadi et al., 2016). The study design and methods areappropriate for the study since they evaluate the impact of energyintake.

Data Analysis andPresentation

The data was analyzed after making adjustments for covariates such astruncal fat, total body fat, and body mass index (Bawadi et al.,2016). The data was also quantitative since it presented exactfigures as opposed to descriptive information. Indeed, the findingssupported the hypothesis and purpose since they showed thatmacronutrient distribution and energy balance had a positive effecton the levels of hs-CRP and HbAIc (Bawadi et al., 2016). Nonetheless,several weaknesses were highlighted with regards to thecross-sectional nature of the study. Notwithstanding, the researchersmanaged to answer the proposed questions.

Conclusions andImplications

The conclusionspresented by the authors are related to the original purpose of thestudy. The implications were fairly discussed to show the relevanceof the information to researchers and patients with diabetes.Subsequently, the authors recommended that dietary interventions beused for the case of patients with weak glycemic control (Bawadi etal., 2016). The authors presented the strengths and weakness of thestudy along with useful recommendations for diabetes patients.Therefore, their initial purpose of weighing the impact of energyintake was achieved.


The article wasquite informative as it overemphasized the effects of energy intakein diabetes patients. The statements are clear with no instances ofambiguity. Indeed, the authors succeeded in answering the researchquestion using data analysis.


Bawadi, H., Katkhiuda, R., Al-Haifi, A.M., Tayyem, R., Elkhoury, C.F., &amp Jamal, Z. (2016). Energy balance and macronutrientdistribution in relation to C-reactive protein and HbA1c levels amongpatients with type 2 diabetes. Food &amp Nutrition Research, 60,29904. doi:10.3402/fnr.v60.29904


Name of article: TheLong Road to Immigration Reform

Author: JoshEidelson and Karen Weise

Date of article:30th June 2016

Publication name:Bloomberg Business Week


The article looks at the Supreme Court’s decision to prevent theObama’s government from preventing the deportation of immigrantsthat have their children as U.S. citizens. Instead, the Supreme Courthas returned the case to the U.S. District Judge Andrew Hanen thatwill decide the next step. Previously, he is the one that had blockedthe move from proceeding citing various reasons including 26 statessuch as Texas that claimed the high associated costs. The fate of the3.6 undocumented immigrants remains uncertain after the DeferredAction for Parents of Americans had promised to save them. Evidently,the case is more likely to proceed to next year even if thegovernment decides to appeal the decision. Hillary Clinton haspromised to implement the DAPA while Donald Trump has questioned theplan and he has revealed that he will deport each of the 3.6undocumented immigrants back to their home countries.


The government should appeal the case if U.S. District Judge AndrewHanen revokes the plan. Evidently, the nation will keep experiencingthe immigrants’ problem and the government need to solve it onceand for all to prevent any damage. The illegal immigrants will keepentering the nation, and the government needs to find a way to helpthem in becoming citizens. In fact, having the work permits will givethe government a chance to retrieve taxes from their income as well.From such a perspective, the government will benefit from their stayin the US. Deporting the immigrants is not a guarantee that otherswill not still visit the US and remain in the nation. Hence, thenation needs to find a way to help them and implementing the DAPAprogram will be one step to a better future as well.


Eidelson, J. &amp Weise, K. (2016). The Long Road to ImmigrationReform. Retrieved on 30th June, 2016, from:


“TheRole of Ordinances in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-daySaints” by Robert J. Matthews

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CriticalInteraction with Author’sWork………………………………………………………………….2




Thispaper establishes a critique for the article concerning, TheRole of Ordinances in the Church.It establishes that the article has the potential of causingcontroversy in the larger Christian community of today. Even thoughthe article contains a number of references to the Bible, this paperfinds that it hardly appeals to other Christians of otherdenominations, non- Christians, and people who seek to learn aboutthe norms and practices of the religion. Special focus will be givento the discussion about the ordinance of baptism, as a practice ofthe church, and as outlined by the author. Overall, Matthews fails toexplain the true purposes of the ordinances of baptism, and laying ofhands from an intrinsic perspective as a Christian rather, hefocuses on scriptural provisions about the ordinances, maintainingthat they form necessary aspects of establishing a connection withGod.


Inthe article, the author posits that ordinances are part of the“Lord’s plan of salvation for the human family.”1Even so, he focuses on what the Lord says and not the role thatChristians, or church members have to play in building andmaintaining a good relationship with God and achieve salvation.Indeed, he is adamant and bold about the need for Christians tofollow the Word of God as expressed in the Bible. Even so, he doesnot elaborate on how the ordinances serve to make one a betterChristian, principally in the context of popular culture, and howthey serve to curb the darker side of human beings. It is wellunderstood by members of the general population that religionfunctions to make people live better lives. What the article missesthe mark is the manner in which these rituals of baptism serve thementioned purpose of religion.


Theinformation articulated in the article is of Systematic Theology, asignificant Christian theology discipline. Despite that, the articledoes not offer any comprehensive information about the history of thepractice of baptism as an ordinance of the Church. Without any doubt,the people of Israel were familiar with the practice of baptism evenbefore Jesus started his ministry. This is observed clearly in theactions of John the Baptist. Indeed, the people questioned theidentity of John the Baptist, but not his activities of baptizingpeople. One wonders why the article fails to mention the story ofNoah, (the situation where water covered the whole earth) as arepresentation of the ordinance of baptism. As such, Matthews failsto mention how the practice of baptism came into being, and anordinance of the church. Nevertheless, the author is keen to indicatethat baptism serves the purpose of cleansing people of sin makingthem pure in the eyes of the Lord, a rational point.

Thenagain, Matthews mentions, “The ordinances are paramount to usbecause the greatest benefits of Christ’s&nbspAtonement areadministered to us onlythrough those ordinances, and ordinances lead the participant to knowGod.”2He also states, “God and His magnificent power and kindness. Theonly way to truly know these things is by participating worthily inthe ordinance of baptism itself.”3From this perspective, one can infer that the Lord has revealedHimself to some people, who were not baptized. A good example, inthis case, is Paul, who was converted to Christianity after having avision of Jesus Christ. Before his conversion, Saul did not believein Jesus he did not partake of any Christian ordinances for thatmatter. This paper finds that people can very well establish aconnection with, and know God even in the absence of churchordinances.

Matthewsalso writes, “It is a basic doctrine of the Church that all humanbeings are literal children of God the Father.”4For this reason, it is at this moment established that it would bebetter if he focused more on explaining how ordinances influence thelives of people of all religious backgrounds. Such would serve anevangelical purpose of appealing to nonbelievers to come to church.Another point worth mentioning is that Matthews observes the subjectmatter of church ordinances from the perspective of other religiousfigures over and above information that is specified in the Bible. Assuch, the article implies that church ordinances are subject tomodification owing to the thoughts and opinions of modern-dayreligious leaders- a point with potential of bringing aboutcontroversy among members of the Christian religion. It would bebetter if the author focused on quoting the Bible only and not thewritings of Smith as well, for purposes of appealing to otherChristians and nonbelievers as well.

Matthews,however, seems rational by indicating, “Ceremonial ordinances aredidactic and tend to maintain unity and a standard of conformity inbelief and practice.”5One cannot decline to note that church ordinances, such as baptism,offer Christians a sense of identity and or belonging. By making somequotations of Bible verses, Matthews seems to propagate aspects ofthe&nbspDoctrineof Revelation.From another perspective, Matthews indicates that baptism requiresone to be immersed in water, to symbolize a situation where anindividual dies, doing away with the old person and the establishmentof a new person. For this reason, he ought to have talked about thoseChristians that conduct baptism by pouring some water on a person’shead. Again, there is the issue of those who baptize infants. Onewould be easily compelled to think why young children requirelikeness of death considering they are not guilty of any wrongdoingsor sin so far.


Inconclusion, baptism refers to church ordinances of immersing peoplein the water for purposes of purification of their spirits andconnecting them with God. This is done in the name of the Father, theSon, and the Holy Spirit.6This paper finds that the work of Matthews does little to explain thepurpose of this ordinance to people outside the Christian faith.Moreover, the author focuses on the work of Joseph Smith, acontroversial religious leader of the 19thCentury, too much, even as he claims to address the issues of “TheChurch.” A keen look also shows that baptism, according to theauthor, implies resurrection and new life. For this reason, theauthor hardly explains the situation of baptism for very youngchildren that have not engaged in sinful acts.


Hospodár,Michal. &quotBaptism and its Consequences for our Life.&quotE-Theologos 3, no. 2 2012. 174,n/a, [Journal on-line]

MatthewsJ. Robert. “The Role of Ordinances in The Church of Jesus Christ ofLatter-day Saints.” In&nbspSalvationin Christ: Comparative Christian Views,ed. Roger R. Keller and Robert L. Millet. Provo, UT: ReligiousStudies Center, Brigham Young University. 2005. [Journal on-line]

1 Matthews J. Robert. “The Role of Ordinances in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.” In&nbspSalvation in Christ: Comparative Christian Views, ed. Roger R. Keller and Robert L. Millet (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2005), 125–140. 2005. [Journal on-line] Internet accessed 12 June 2016.

2 Ibid.,

3 Ibid.,

4 Ibid.,

5 Ibid.,

6 Hospodár, Michal. &quotBaptism and its Consequences for our Life.&quot E-Theologos 3, no. 2 2012. 174,n/a, [Journal on-line] Internet accessed 12 June 2016.